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|News of the companies|
|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The article is devoted to the identification of current trends and prospects for the development of legislation in the field of ensuring environmental and biological safety in the use of mineral resources in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, in connection with the adoption of the new Federal Law ЂOn Biological Safetyї. The authors prove the importance of the law in ensuring biological safety, establishing the legal basis for protection against biological challenges (threats), while noting its inconsistency with the current documents of the state strategic planning in the field of environmental safety, as well as in the field of subsurface use.
The proposal is substantiated on the need to adopt a unified classification of biological threats (hazards) by territories (zones), categories, forms and types, with the allocation of a separate classification of biological threats (hazards) in the use of subsurface resources in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Also, based on the results of the analysis of corporate strategic planning documents, a proposal is formulated on the need to consolidate the features of the legal provision of biological safety in strategic documents that define the main vectors of the company's policy in the field of industrial safety, labor protection and the environment.
7. Bogolyubov S.A., Krasnova I.O., Law and protection of the nature of the Russian Arctic (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2018, no. 6(91), pp. 178Ц190, DOI: 10.17803/1994-1471.2018.91.6.178-190.
8. Agafonov V.B., Zhavoronkova N.G., Theoretical and legal issues of ensuring biological safety of the Russian Federation (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2020, no. 4, pp. 187Ц194, DOI: 10.17803/1994-1471.2020.113.4.187-194, DOI: 10.17803/1994-1471.2020.113.4.187-194
9. Robinson N.A., Walzer Ch., How do we prevent the next outbreak, Scientific American, URL: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-dowe-prevent-the-next-outbreak/
10. Krasnova I.O., Vlasenko V.N., Strategic regulatory instruments in environmental law of Russia, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and Social Sciences, 2020, V. 13, no. 10, pp. 1671Ц1678, DOI: 10.17516/1997-1370-0673.
12. Krasnova I.O., Ecosystem approach in legal regulation of biosafety (In Russ.), Vestnik Rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2021, V. 25, no. 1, pp. 232Ц247, DOI: 10.22363/2313-2337-2021-25-1-232-247.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
In Eastern Siberia, many fields have been discovered in the Vendian terrigenous complex, including the large Verkhnechonskoye and Srednebotuobinskoye oil and gas condensate fields of Rosneft Oil Company. Despite the already existing large discoveries, the potential of the terrigenous complex in the region is still very great. The main problem in exploration work in these sediments is reservoir forecasting. The reason for this is the lack of understanding of the structure of the strata. Based on the knowledge-intensive geological and geophysical approaches used in the perimeter of Rosneft Oil Company, the authors managed to recreate the history of the formation of Vendian terrigenous sediments and identify the main promising areas of reservoir distribution.
This article is devoted to the sequence-stratigraphic and facies analysis of the Vendian terrigenous deposits at the Srednebotuobinskoye field. Due to integrated approach based on the study of well data (core, logging) and 3D seismic data, it was possible to restore the history of the formation of the terrigenous complex. For this stage of development, two sedimentation models of sedimentation were selected; the source of drift and the configuration of the paleoshore line were identified. Thanks to this approach, zones of distribution of potential reservoirs in the Talakh horizon were identified, as well as zones of deteriorated reservoir properties in the Botuoba horizon were identified, which were later confirmed by drilling exploratory wells. This approach helped to reduce risks in further exploration work and opened up new prospects at the field. In the future, such work will make it possible to ensure the identification of new promising objects at other fields of the Rosneft Company and to ensure the growth of new reserves.
1. Dolgova E.I., Chirgun A.S., Gayduk A.V., Perevozchikov S.N., Search for missed deposits at Srednebotuobinskoye field in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 5, pp. 80-83, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-5-80-83
2. Lebedev M.V., Moiseev S.A., Topeshko V.A., Fomin A.M., Stratigraphy of Vendian terrigenous deposits in the northeast of the Nepa-Botuobiya anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2014, V. 55, no. 5-6, pp. 874-890.
3. Zhemchugova V.A., Rezervuarnaya sedimentologiya karbonatnykh otlozheniy (Reservoir sedimentology of carbonate deposits), Moscow: Publ. of EAGE, 2014, 232 p.
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For a group of fields in the Khoreyver depression, the experience of estimating trends in the petrophysical properties of low-thickness carbonate reservoirs of the Upper Famennian is shown. The research was carried out both on the comprehensive analysis of available geological and geophysical data (seismic, boreholes, cores), and on the experience of previous years. The works included a detailed correlation of well sections, identification of lithofacies according to well logging and core data, creating of maps for this lithofacies. Then seismic attribute and neural analysis in both two- and three-dimensional modifications were performed. These parts allowed to get seismic facies classification and to calculate reservoir propertiesТ trends. This way gave an estimation map of lithofacies, as well as quantitative trend maps of effective thicknesses, NTG and porosity. Based on the results of the analysis of geological and geophysical information, the most perspective zones were identified for further additional drilling. The results of the research made it possible, despite the difficult geological conditions (small thickness, faults, diagenesis), to clarify the situation of sedimentation of the region; for the first time to obtain the lithofacies distribution, taking into account the seismic forecast, to get quantitative estimating maps for effective thickness and porosity. The results are currently taken into account as one of the factors when making decisions on the placement for new wells.
1. Osobennosti geologicheskogo stroeniya prirodnykh rezervuarov i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti severa Khoreyverskoy vpadiny i Kolvinskogo megavala (Features of the geological structure of natural reservoirs and the prospects for oil and gas content in the north of the Khoreyver depression and the Kolvinsky mega-shaft): edited by Fortunatova N.K., Moscow: Publ. of NIA-Priroda, 2002, 197 р.
2. Teplov E.L., P.K. Kostygova, Larionova Z.V. et al., Prirodnye rezervuary neftegazonosnykh kompleksov Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (Natural reservoirs of oil and gas bearing complexes of the Timan-Pechora province), St. Petersburg, Renome Publ., 2011, 286 p.
3. Bogatskiy V.I., Larionova Z.V., Dovzhikova E.G. et al., Timano-Pechorskiy sedimentatsionnyy basseyn. Atlas geologicheskikh kart (Timano-Pechora sedimentary basin. Atlas of geological maps (lithologic-facies, structural and paleontological)), Ukhta: Publ. of TP NITS, 2002, 122 p.
4. Ryzhkov V.I., Dan'ko D.A. et al., Sozdanie metodiki petrouprugogo modelirovaniya dlya prognoza litologii i kollektorskikh svoystv karbonatnykh otlozheniy Zapadno-Khosedayuskogo mestorozhdeniya (Creation of a petroelastic modeling technique for predicting the lithology and reservoir properties of carbonate deposits of the West Khosedayu field), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2018, 273 р.
5. Kompleksirovanie geofizicheskoy informatsii dlya sozdaniya geologicheskoy i gidrodinamicheskoy modeley Severo-Khosedayuskogo mestorozhdeniya (Integration of geophysical information to create geological and hydrodynamic models of the North-Khosedayuskoye field), Tver Ц Moscow: Publ. of Pomor-GERS, PetroTreys-Global, 2014.6. Obobshchenie i obrabotka pervichnoy geologo-geofizicheskoy informatsii po Zapadno-Khosedayuskomu mestorozhdeniyu imeni D. Sadetskogo (Generalization and processing of primary geological and geophysical information on the Zapadno-Khosedayu field named after D. Sadetsky), Tver Ц Moscow: Pomor-GERS, PetroTreys-Global, VNIIneft', 2015, 181 р.
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Geological well section correlation is one of the most important geological problems, since its results are used for further construction of geological models. The results of manual correlation are subjective and depend on the specialist's qualifications performing it. The correlation process is a routine and time-consuming work which requires processing big data sets, therefore automatic well correlation methods are necessary for better performance. In practice, as a rule, the boundaries of the layers in neighboring wells are found by paired correlation method of the corresponding well logging data based on a well with known reservoir boundaries. The sequential correlation on a large number of wells leads to the fact that the result significantly depends on the order of their bypass. This is the main problem with automatic correlation methods. Usually the triangulation networks method is used as a verification method of well correlation results. This approach is implemented in a number of domestic software products. It should be noted that this method also depends on the order of well bypass in which they are correlated.
In this paper, we propose a verification method of well logging correlation results for a given pair of wells, based on the statistical evaluation along different wells pathways. We assume that each pathways starts and ends at the specified wells and passes through various intermediate wells. The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method and the method based on the wavelet analysis are used as pair correlation algorithms. One part of the developed method is an algorithm for generating a set of paths connecting the wells under consideration and passing in some limited area. Also we propose correctness verification procedure for the developed method. Examples are given to demonstrate the developed approach and its comparison with the well-known verification algorithm based on triangulation networks.
1. Dolitskiy V.A., Geologicheskaya interpretatsiya materialov geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Geological interpretation of well logging data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 387 p.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obТemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by PetersilТe V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Ц Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.
3. Shaybakov R.A., Obosnovanie kompleksnoy metodiki identifikatsii trekhmernykh geologicheskikh ob"ektov (Substantiation of an integrated technique for identifying three-dimensional geological objects): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Ufa, 2014, 190 p.
4. Shi Y., Wu X., Fomel S., Finding an optimal well-log correlation sequence using coherence-weighted graphs, Proceedings of Conference: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2017, 2017, pp. 1982Ц1987, DOI:10.1190/segam2017-17746336.1
5. Gutman I.S., Balaban I.Yu., Kuznetsova G.P., Staroverov V.M., Reservoir modeling. Automatic well log data correlation using "AutoCorr" software (In Russ.), SPE-104343-MS, 2006, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/104343-MS
6. Salvador S., Chan P., FastDTW: Toward accurate dynamic time warping in linear time and space, Intelligent Data Analysis, 2004, no. 11(5), pp. 70Ц80.
7. Lineman D.J., Mendelson J.D., Toksoz M.N., Well-to-well log correlation using knowledge-based systems and dynamic depth warping: Technical report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Earth Resources Laboratory, 1987, pp. 421Ц459.
8. Keogh E. J., Pazzani M.J., Derivative dynamic time warping, Proceedings of the 2001 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, Chicago, 2001, DOI:10.1137/1.9781611972719.1
9. Mirowski P., Herron M., Seleznev N., Fluckiger S., McCormick D., New software for well-to-well correlation of spectroscopy logs, URL: https://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/abstracts/2005intl_paris/mirowski.htm
10. Jiang Y., Qi Y., Wang W.K. et al., EventDTW: An improved Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for aligning biomedical signals of nonuniform sampling frequencies, Sensor, 2020, V. 20(9), pp. 1Ц13, DOI:10.3390/s20092700.
11. Mallat S.G., A wavelet tour of signal processing, Academic Press, 1999.
12. Preston F.W. Henderson J., Fourier series characterization of cyclic sediments for stratigraphic correlation, Kansas Geological Survey, 1964, pp. 415Ц425.13. Gutman I.S., Kuznetsova G.P., Saakyan M.I., Detailed correlation of drill sections with the help of the УAUTOCORRФ program complex (In Russ.), Geoinformatika, 2009, no. 2, pp. 86Ц97.
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Assessment of the mineralogical composition of rocks is very important for a detailed lithological description of the section. This is especially important when the section is represented by rocks with a complex geological structure, such as heterogeneous limestones and dolomites, or sandy-argillaceous rocks with a multicomponent composition. In addition, to assess the effect of clay content on porosity, it is necessary to know the type of clay and its mineralogical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of core samples is a direct method for studying the composition of rocks. However, the core is not available in all wells, not in the entire depth interval; therefore, the mineralogical composition of rocks is estimated based on the recorded data of pulsed neutron gamma ray spectrometric logging. Interpretation of these data is a rather complicated process and consists of primary processing of the recorded spectra and interpretation itself. The primary processing of the recorded spectra is carried out according to a certain technology, and the interpretation itself is based on the well-known geochemical model of oxides.
This article presents the results of the work of Bashkir State University on the data of primary processing and interpretation of spectra recorded by the device AINK-PL provided by VNIIA named by N.L. Dukhov. A quantitative interpretation of well logging data has been performed. Comparison of the results obtained in the work with the data of core analysis showed good agreement in the quantitative assessment of the mineral composition of rocks.
1. Bubeev A.A., Velizhanin V.A., Loboda N.G., A method and an algorithm for the processing of the neutron gamma-ray spectrometry logging data obtained by an SNGK-89 tool (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 8(206), pp. 55Ц72.
2. Velizhanin V.A., Bortasevich V.S., Loboda D.R. et al., Instruktsiya po provedeniyu impul'snogo spektrometricheskogo neytronnogo gamma-karotazha apparaturoy serii AIMS i obrabotke rezul'tatov (Instructions for carrying out pulsed spectrometric neutron gamma-ray logging with the AIMS series equipment and processing the results), Tver: Publ. of Neftegazgeofizika, 2004, 81 p.
3. Khomyakov A.S., Importozameshchayushchaya geofizicheskaya apparatura proizvodstva FGUP VNIIA: Vserossiyskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut avtomatiki im. N.L. Dukhova (Import-substituting geophysical equipment produced by VNIIA: Federal State Unitary Enterprise Dukhov Automatics Research Institute), 2019, 33 p., URL: http://oilandgasforum.ru/data/files/homyakov.pdf.
4. Oyinkansola Modupe Ajayi, Numerical simulation and interpretation of neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy measurements: PhD dissertation, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin, 2015, 333 p.
5. Aboud M., Badry R.A., Grau J., Herron S.L., High-definition spectroscopy Ц determining mineralogic, Oilfield Review, 2014, V.26(1), pp. 34-50.6. Khisamutdinov A.I., Banzarov B.V., Fedorin M.A., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie nestatsionarnogo perenosa chastits v zadachakh impul'snogo neytronnogo gammaЦkarotazha (Mathematical modeling of non-stationary particle transport in the problems of pulsed neutron gamma-logging), Novosibirsk: Publ. of IPGG SB RAS, 2008, 54 p.
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The article provides information on the development of accelerometers for directional surveying of oil and gas wells capable of operating under dynamic influences (shock, vibration and temperature) arising during the drilling process. The requirements for downhole telemetry equipment used in the process of drilling are analyzed in the context of the peculiarities of the operation of downhole inclinometers. The design of accelerometers for inclinometric measurements, produced abroad, as well as designs of similar devices of domestic development, is considered. The analysis of world trends in the development of accelerometers for use in inclinometers of downhole equipment is carried out. The history of the creation of Russian accelerometers of the compensation type is briefly described, the design features of accelerometers designed to operate under conditions of simultaneous impact of shocks up to 1000g with a pulse duration of 5 ms, vibrations up to 30g and temperatures above 150 ∞ C are also considered, which are used in downhole equipment in the process of drilling oil and gas wells. The necessity of organizing the serial production of Russian accelerometers by Russian instrument-making plants is also substantiated. Recommendations are given for organizing the production of domestic accelerometers suitable for use as a replacement for out-of-order foreign accelerometers, which are operated in Russian oil and gas fields both in domestic downhole equipment and in imported ones. The current situation on the creation of Russian accelerometers for downhole equipment operating in harsh operating conditions is highlighted, as well as the directions for creating Russian accelerometers with a classical architecture and accelerometers (also of a compensation type) manufactured using MEMS technology, which today have no analogues in the world.
1. Rodriguez A., MacMillan C., Maranuk C., Watson J., Innovative technology to extend EM-M/LWD drilling depth, SPE-166190-MS, 2013, DOI:10.2118/166190-MS.
2. Voprosy tekhnicheskoy politiki otrasley TEK Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Technical policy issues of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation): edited by Zhdaneev O.V., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2020, 304 p., DOI:10.7868/9785020408241.
3. Zhdaneev O.V., Frolov K.N., Drilling technology priorities in Russia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 5, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-5-42-48/
4. Lesso W. G., Rezmer-Cooper I. M., Chau M., Continuous direction and inclination measurements revolutionize real-time directional drilling decision-making, SPE-67752-MS, 2001, DOI: 10.2118/67752-MS.
5. Zalyaev M.F., The exploration of vibration while drilling wells on termokarstovoe gas deposit (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, V. 13, no. 4, pp. 36-40.
6. Millan E., Ringer M., Boualleg R., Li D., Real-time drillstring vibration characterization using machine learning, SPE-194061-MS, 2019, DOI:10.2118/194061-MS.
7. Mabile C., Desplans J.P., Pavone D., A new way of using surface measurements to detect down hole vibrations, SPE-36883-MS, 1996, DOI:10.2118/36883-MS.
9. Chao D., Zhuang Y., El-Sheimy N., An innovative MEMS-based MWD method for directional drilling, SPE-175898-MS, 2015, DOI:10.2118/175898-MS.
10. Palagin V.A., Frizuk A.E., Nanoimprinting Ц Nanolithography, Proceedings of International workshop on optoelectronic physics and technology, 2007, 20th June, pp. 63Ц67.
11. MEMS accelerometer performance comes of age, URL: https://www.analog.com/en/technical-articles/mems-accelerometer-performance-comes-of-age.html.
12. Osobennosti i sravnitel'nye kharakteristiki tekhnologiy izgotovleniya tverdotel'nykh akselerometrov (Features and comparative characteristics of technologies for the manufacture of solid-state accelerometers), URL: https://avi-solutions.com/library/statyi/osobennosti/.
13. Lu C., Jiang G., Wang Z., The development of and experiments on electromagnetic measurement while a drilling system is used for deep exploration, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 2016, V. 13, no. 5, pp. 824Ц831.
14. Konovalov S.F., Polynkov A.V., Seo J.B. et al., Research of operability of accelerometers at high-G linear acceleration, vibrating and shock effects without using test centrifuges, vibration and shock test tables, Proceedings of XIV Saint Petersburg international conference on integrated navigation systems, Saint Petersburg, 2007, pp. 125Ц132.
15. Patent RU2731652C1, Pendulum compensating accelerometer, Inventors: Konovalov S.F., Mayorov D.V., Ponomarev Yu.A., Chulkov V.E.b Semenov A.E., Kharlamov M.S.
16. House D., Li D., Anisotropic etching, In: Encyclopedia of microfluidics and nanofluidics: edited by Li D., Springer, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-48998-8_35.
17. Chai J., Walker G., Wang L. et al., Silicon etching using only Oxygen at high temperature: An alternative approach to Si micro-machining on 150 mm Si wafers, Sci Rep. 5, 2016, Article no. 17811, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17811, URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep17811.
18. Konovalov C.F., Ponomarev Yu.A., Mayorov D.V. et al., Hybrid MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers (In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie: Nauchnoe izdanie MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 2011, no. 10, URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/gibridnye-mikroelektromehanicheskie-giroskopy-i-akselerometry.
19. Konovalov S.F., Podchezertsev V.P., Mayorov D.V. et al., Two-axis MEMS angular rate sensor with magnetoelectric feedback torques in excitation and measurement channels, Gyroscopy Navig., 2010, no. 1, pp. 321Ц329, https://doi.org/10.1134/S2075108710040140.
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In 2017, Vietsovpetro switched to G cement brand for casing the strings/liners. For further improvement of casing quality, Vietsovpetro completed the research studies on justifying the selection of effective chemicals, as well as the lab tests with the use of gas migration control additives BA-58L and BA-86L and expanding additive EC-2 in the cement slurry. Initially, the formulations provided by Baker Hughes Ц BJ with expanding additive EC-2 and gas mitigation control additives based on fine-grained silica (BA-58L) were tested. Later on, this formulation was handed-over to Vietsovpetro laboratory for checking and adjusting; besides, the research scope was expanded by changing the range of EC-2 additive concentration. The researches of the liquid-rubber based additive, BA-86L, were performed the same way. The tests revealed that adding EC-2 in concentration of 0.5% leads to a double increase of cement stone expandability, while concentration of 0.75% to only 20%, which proves unviability of increasing the concentration to 1.0%. To determine a sensibility to gas migration during a cement slurry thickening, the tests with an application of cement hydration analyzer were performed. The tests results led to a definitive conclusion on good anti-gas migration properties of the composition with BA-58L additive. Similar results were obtained for the formulations with BA-86L additive. Therefore, two alternative formulations of cement slurries with expanding and gas migration control additives were developed. These formulations fit the category of tolerant to gas penetration and migration compositions. The tests during the production strings cementing in 2021 proved the efficiency of the developed formulations.
1. Danyushevskiy V.S., Proektirovanie optimal'nykh sostavov tamponazhnykh tsementov (Design of well cements optimal compositions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 280 p.
2. Pereyma A.A., Minchenko Yu.S., Trusov S.G., Some aspects of influence of grouting mortar chemical treatment on expanding agent efficiency (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2011, no. 5, pp. 27Ц30.
3. Grabowski E., Gillott J.E., Effect of replacement of silica flour with silica fume on engineering properties of oilwell cements at normal and elevated temperatures and pressures, Cement and Concrete Research, 1989, V. 19(3), pp. 333Ц344.
4. Shadizadeh S.R., Kholghi M., Salehi Kassaei M.H., Experimental investigation of silica fume as a cement extender for liner cementing in Iranian oil/gas wells, Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2010, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 42Ц66.
5. Crook R., Heathman J., Predicting potential gas-flow rates to help determine the best cementing practices, Drilling Contractor, 1998, November/December, pp. 40Ц43.
6. Ingraffea R., Fluid migration mechanisms due to faulty well design and/or construction: an overview and recent experiences in the Pennsylvania, 2013, URL: http://www.damascuscitizensforsustainability.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/PSECementFailureCausesRa...
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The author justifies the need to take into account the simultaneous operation of several oil-gas-water saturated reservoirs opened by the borehole when calculating surface casing setting depth in order to eliminate the possibility of fracturing under the surface casing shoe in the case of gas, oil and water showings after the complete replacement of drilling mud in the wellbore with a reservoir fluid or a mixture of fluids of different horizons and well capping. A method is given for calculating the average specific weight of formation fluids in a well in the case of open blowing. It is shown that if a well breaks down several reservoirs, then in case of open blowing, all reservoirs, including aquifers, will be consistently connected. In this case, the well will be filled with a mixture of reservoir fluids from different horizons. The fluid share of each horizon in the mixture will be determined by the coefficients of reservoir productivity and the depression of each reservoir. The initial data for the calculation are the reservoir pressure, the depth of the reservoir, the coefficient of productivity, the specific gravity of the fluid for each horizon opened by the well. To calculate the average specific weight of a mixture of formation fluids in a well, it is necessary to solve a system of equations using numerical methods. It is shown that in calculating the surface casing setting depth in case of opening several oil and gas-saturated reservoirs, it is necessary to take into account the average specific gravity of reservoir fluids in the well over all the reservoirs, the depth and the reservoir pressure of the reservoir with maximum value of differential pressure (and not the maximum gradient of the reservoir pressure), the specific gravity of the gas and the saturation pressure of oil with gas are taken through the reservoir with the maximum pressure of saturation of oil with gas. It is shown that when taking into account the work of several reservoirs, the calculated surface casing setting depth can be both smaller and larger than when calculated per individual reservoir.
1. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety УPravila bezopasnosti v neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennostiФ (Safety rules in the oil and gas industry), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/4990110042. Kayugin A.A., On a calculation of surface casing pipe rih depth and the presence of several oiland water-saturated layers in the cross-section (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2018, no. 11, pp. 48Ц51.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The subject of study is the oilfields located on the territory of Perm region which is one of the oldest oil production provinces in Russia. On the example of the largest oil production company in Perm region LUKOIL-PERM JSC the analysis of oil production profile within 1939-2019 is performed. The purpose of work is to distinguish the characteristic time periods from the production dynamics point of view and to reveal the causes of such behavior as well as main events. In total, 6 time periods are determined. Each of them is estimated by its contribution into overall production of every out of 6 sedimentological stratums. The impact of different development solutions implementation and realization such as the use of horizontal wells or sidetracking is specified with regard to Perm region in general and to each stratum in particular. The performed analysis is a first step of authorsТ in-depth investigation of the causes of oil production growth in Perm region.
The other items to consider are: the causes of oil production growth in Perm region in 2000s Ц mature fields oil production improvement; the use of advanced well completion in the wells of Perm region oilfields (experience, tendencies and perspectives); the development of green fields in Perm region since 2000s, their contribution into the overall oil production; the perspectives of the low-productive reservoirs development on the oilfields of Perm region. It is noted, the use of flexible reservoir management decisions allows to minimize the possible geological risks.
1. Voevodkin V.L., Raspopov A.V., Muzhikova L.N., Kondratʹev S.A., Application of new technological solutions in the field of oil & gas development in the oilfields of LUKOIL-PERM LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 104Ц106.
2. Plotnikov V., Rekhachev P., Barkovsky N., Study in efficiency of acid compositions application in the clastic reservoirs of Perm region based on experimental studies of core sample, SPE-191667-18RPTC-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/191667-18RPTC-MS
3. Zhukov Yu.A. et al., Analiz i utochnenie syr'evoy bazy nefti, gaza i kondensata Permskogo kraya (Analysis and refinement of the resource base of oil, gas and condensate of the Perm Territory), Perm: Publ. of PermNIPIneft', 2002, 194 p.
4. Andreev D.N., Shatrova A.I., Andreev D.N., Shatrova A.I., Oil industrial facilities in Perm region (In Russ.), Antropogennaya transformatsiya prirodnoy sredy, 2019, no. 5, pp. 3Ц7.
5. Kutergina G.V., Avvakumov V.Yu., Modorskiy A.V., Development of oil and gas sector monitoring in Perm Territory (In Russ.), Ekonomika regiona, 2012, no. 1, pp. 170Ц180.
6. Urasova A.A., The main trends in the development of the oil industry in the Perm region (In Russ.), VUZ. XXI vek, 2015, no. 1(47), pp. 113Ц122.
7. Yushkov I.R., Experience in the application of methods for increasing oil recovery in the fields of the Perm Territory (In Russ.), Nauchnye issledovaniya i innovatsii, 2010, V. 4, no. 1, pp. 44Ц50.
8. Raspopov A.V., Kazantsev A.S., Antonov D.V., The influence of development monitoring on oilfield exploration effectivness on the Perm Territory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 6, pp. 58Ц61.
9. Goncharova O.R., Kozlov S.V., Enhancing the efficiency of gas-oil (oil-gas) deposits development based on selection of optimal engineering solutions for Perm Region fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2020, V. 20, no. 1, pp. 88Ц100, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2020.1.8.
10. Gabnasyrov A.V., Shilov A.V., Ustinova Yu.V., Improved approaches to determination of the current oil saturation of reservoir rocks according to geophysical data in the fields of LUKOIL-PERM LLC, SPE-176567-MS, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2118/176567-MS
11. Information report УObobshchenie opyta razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy PAO УLUKOYLФ (Generalization of the experience of developing oil fields of LUKOIL), Perm: Publ. of LUKOYL-Perm, 2020, pp. 7Ц24.
12. Gavura V.E., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Geology and development of oil and oil-and-gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1995, 496 p.
13. Zakirov S.N., Korotaev Yu.P., Kondrat P.M. et al., Teoriya vodonapornogo rezhima gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Theory of the water pressure regime of gas fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 240 p.
14. Ivanova M.M., Dinamika dobychi nefti iz zalezhey (Dynamics of oil production from deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 246 p.
15. Lyadova N.A., Yakovlev Yu.A., Raspopov A.V., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo kraya (Geology and development of oil deposits of the Perm region), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, 355 p.
16. Kopylov I.S., Konoplev A.V., Geological structure and mineral resources in the atlas of Perm Krai (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Geologiya, 2013, no. 3(20), pp. 5-30.
17. Geologiya i razrabotka krupneyshikh i unikal'nykh neftyanykh i neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy Rossii (Geology and development of large and unique oil and gas fields in Russia): edited by Gavura V.E., Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1996, 281 p.
18. Gattenberger Yu.P., Khalimov E.M., Lithological oil deposits in the Devonian sediments of the Ural-Volga region (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1958, no. 8, pp. 25Ц29.
19. Poplaukhina T.B., Mokrushina S.S., Krylov D.Yu., Khomutova A.V., Determination of the annual rate of decline in oil production at the field development facilities of LUKOIL-PERM CJSC to perform a geological and economic assessment of reserves according to the SPE classification (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2004, no. 5, pp. 92Ц100.
20. Poplaukhina T.B., Krylov D.Yu., Khomutova A.V., Creation and application of well stock disposal algorithms depending on the development conditions for the fields of LUKOIL-PERM CJSC (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2004, no. 5, pp. 79Ц87.
21. Voevodkin V.L., Chertenkov M.V., New technologies in LUKOIL: from simple to complicated (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 62Ц66, https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-8-62-66
22. Voevodkin V.L., Okromelidze G.V., The development of the sidetracks construction technology at oil fields in Perm region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 32Ц35, https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-8-32-35
23. Sayfitdinova V.A., Dudareva I.K., Skorikova E.O., Multilateral well placement in carbonates of Volga-Ural region in Russia, SPE-202043-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/202043-MS
24. Voevodkin V.L., Lyadova N.A., Okromelidze G.V. et al., Experience and prospects of slim hole construction on LUKOIL-PERM oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 98Ц102, https://doi.org/10.24887/ 0028-2448-2018-12-98-102
25. Plotnikov V.V., Rehachev P.N., Barkovsky N.N., The effect of acid treatments on the bottom zone of clastic reservoir rocks of Perm region, SPE-182063-MS, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2118/182063-MS
26. Rakitin E., Ziganshin R., Novokreshchennykh D., Improvement of effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing in carbonate sediments P1ar+k of the Pashninskoe field of the Komi Republic, SPE-197006-MS. 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/ 197006-MS
27. Sharafeev R., Drozdov S., Novokreshchennykh D., Experience in application of hydraulic fracturing techniques in carbonate deposits at the Perm Krai, Republic of Komi and Nenets autonomous district fields. Ways to improve efficiency,SPE-196989-MS, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/196989-MS
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In view of the worldТs reserves depletion for conventional oil, the more focus is given to, so-called, unconventional sources of hydrocarbons, where the high-viscosity oil fields holds the special place. Firstly, this is due to the fact of genetic relations of high-viscosity oil to the traditional reserves, and secondly, to the tremendous discovered worldТs reserves, which exceed the residual conventional oil reserves by times.
The article takes the high-viscosity oil field to show that the long development without the reservoir pressure maintenance leads to a significant decrease of the reservoir pressure. Reduction of the bottomhole pressure below the bubble point pressure is clearly visible in the producing wells. These processes lead to a necessity of converting the most wells, equipped with the electric-centrifugal pumps, to the cyclic mode, resulting in drops of the monthly average oil production. Initial recoverable reserves estimation for the development without the reservoir pressure maintenance proved that the developed recoverable reserves are within 26% from the designed values. It is shown that the efficiency of applying the reservoir pressure maintenance system during the high-viscosity oil field development significantly depends on commencing the injection wells system. The submitted calculations on the geological-hydrodynamic model demonstrated that the commencement of the pressure maintenance system under reservoir pressures of 60-70% from the initial values, allows achieving the designed recovery factor, while the consequent hold of injection system commencement leads to losses in the initial recoverable reserves. Within the pressure range 0.6-0.3 from the initial reservoir pressure, almost the linear dependency is observed, which later changes to a rapid decrease of recovery factor with the reduction of the УstartФ pressure. Therefore, the late deployment of the pressure maintenance system threatens by the significant losses of the high viscous recoverable reserves.
1. Ametov I.M., Baydikov Yu.N., Ruzin L.M., Spiridonov Yu.A., Dobycha tyazhelykh i vysokovyazkikh neftey (Extraction of heavy and high-viscosity oils), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 205 p.
2. Antoniadi D.G., Teoriya i praktika razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s vysokovyazkimi neftyami (Theory and practice of developing fields with high-viscosity oils), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 2004, 336 p.3. Al'mukhametova E.M., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii nestatsionarnogo vozdeystviya v razrabotke zalezhey vysokovyazkoy nefti (Improving the technology of non-stationary impact in the development of high-viscosity oil deposits), Ufa: Publ. of Galiullin D.A., 2016, 236 p.
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At the present stage of oil production the share of hard-to-recover carbon reserves reaches 65% of the total volume of proven reserves and continues to grow up. One of the most effective methods of recovery of hard-to-recover reserves are the horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fracturing, which operating needs to conduct permanent monitoring including the control of intensity of inflow from the hydraulic fracturing ports and the definition of phase content of the flowing fluids. Among the most widespread methods of oil production monitoring in horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fracturing the field geophysical surveys are standing out. At the present time the cost of field geophysical surveys is rather high and the interpretation of the surveys is not always unambiguous. In this sense the development of technologies in the structure of Rosneft software is actual for increase of efficiency of surveys and reduction of the operation costs.
In the paper the results of research of multiphase flow in the horizontal well shank with multiple hydraulic fracturing for resolving the problem of inflow profile and fluid content determination are presented. The original mathematical models are developed for description of stationary and non-stationary flow of mixtures of liquid-gas, oil-water and water-oil-gas in horizontal and near horizontal tubes, which expand the present methods of prediction of the pressure and temperature gradients and phase concentrations. The experimental stand is constructed, which contains the transparent tube of 12 meters length with inner diameter of 94 mm, with possibility of regulation of angle of inclination of its separate sections and inflow of liquid and gas in two different points. At the experimental stand the comparison of measured and calculated liquid holdup is carried out for the mixtures of water-air and oil-water and different flow rates of mixture components and angles of inclination. The satisfactory agreement was gained and it was shown that the developed mathematical models exceed in accuracy the known methods, which are realized in commercial software. On the base of the models the algorithm is constructed to determine the inflow profile and the phase content based on the measured parameters of multiphase flow in the horizontal well shank with multiple hydraulic fracturing. The program module is realized for interpretation of results of the field geophysical surveys.
1. Kolonskikh A.V., Toropov K.V., Sergeychev A.V. et al., Scientific and methodological approaches to improve the development of low-permeability oil reservoirs using horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fracturing on the territory of LLC RN-Yuganskneftegaz activity (In Russ.), SPE-196755-RU, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/196755-MS
2. Zhang H.-Q., Wang Q., Sarica C., Brill J., Unified model for gas-liquid pipe flow via slug dynamics, J.Energy Res.Techol., 2003, V. 125, pp. 266Ц283.
3. Zhang H.-Q., Sarica C., Unified modeling of gas/oil/water pipe flow Ц Basic approach and preliminary validation, SPE-95749-PA, 2005, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/95749-PA.
4. Issa R.I., Kempf M.H.W., Simulation of slug flow in horizontal and nearly horizontal pipes with the two-fluid model, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2003, V. 29, pp. 69Ц95.
5. Topol'nikov A.S., Mikhaylov V.G., Yarullin A.R., Teoreticheskoe i eksperimental'noe modelirovanie techeniya mnogofaznogo potoka v gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh s mnogostadiynym gidrorazryvom plasta (Theoretical and experimental modeling of multiphase flow in horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing), Proceedings of XII All-Russian Congress on Fundamental Problems of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Ufa, 2019, pp. 410Ц412.
6. Beggs H., Brill J., A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1973, V. 25, pp. 607Ц617.
7. Petalas N., Aziz K., Development and testing of a new mechanistic model for multiphase flow in pipes, ASME Fluids Engineering Division 2nd Int. Symposium on Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows, 1996.8. Sharma A., Al-Sarkhi A., Sarica C., Zhang C.Y., Modeling of oil-water flow using energy minimization concept, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2011, V. 37(4), pp. 326Ц335.
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To date, the geological and reservoir simulations have become an integral tool of petroleum engineering. At the same time, the approaches and solutions for the creation and adjustment of the reservoir simulations are constantly being improved. This work is devoted to taking into account the peculiarities of the applied technological solutions for well development from drilling and measures to stimulate oil production using acid systems during adjustment and adaptation of reservoir simulations of layered-heterogeneous carbonate deposits. It is shown that advanced watering in layered-heterogeneous carbonate deposits during the organization of the waterflood scheme is not only associated with the peculiarity of the geological structure of the studied deposits, but also directly depends on the technology of well completion. Under monoacid action, the radius of the changed zone along the interlayers can differ, including by an order of magnitude, due to the implementation of a compact dissolution mechanism in some layers, in other layers in the wormhole formation mode. The proposed solutions are based on the generalization of the results of studies of the conditions for uniform, compact dissolution of rocks and the formation of wormholes under acid action. The result of the calculations is the justification of the values of the skin-factor of each interlayer, taking into account the complex accounting of the heterogeneity of the section, the data of hydrodynamic studies of wells, the technology of well operations. The method of calculation of actual radius of changed zone under acid action in mode of wormholes formation by interlayers is proposed. The results of reservoir simulation adjustment to history, taking into account the method of determining the interval values of the skin-factor in the section of wells, show a high level of convergence with actual data, which was not achieved earlier when using single parameters of the modified properties of the bottom hole formation zone for all interlayers of the section, which indicates the correctness of the chosen direction of the solution the task at hand. The developed set of solutions has also been successfully tested in assessing and predicting the effectiveness of well treatments with complex acid systems with diverters.
1. Gavura V.E. et al., Kontrol' i regulirovanie protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Control and regulation of the development of oil and gas-oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2001, 339 p.
2. Khisamutdinov N.I., Khasanov M.M., Telin A.G. et al., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy na pozdney stadii (The development of oil fields in the late stage), Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1994, 251 p.
3. Cherepanov S.S., Baldina T.R., Raspopov A.V. et al., Results of industrial replication of acid treatment technologies by using deflection systems at the deposits of LLC "LUKOIL-PERM" (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 6 (330), pp. 19Ц28.
4. Kazantsev A.S., The laboratory studying self-diverting acid systems for acidic treatments of wells with stratified irregularity in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 11, pp. 94-97, DOI 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-94-97.
5. Novikov V.A., Martyushev D.A., Experience in acid treatments in carbonate deposits of Perm region fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2020, V. 20, no. 1, pp. 72Ц87, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2020.1.7, 2020.
6. Mishchenkov I.S., Troshkov S.A., Influence of the speed of movement of hydrochloric acid on the rate of dissolution of carbonate rock (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1986, no. 5, pp. 48Ц49.
7. Orlov N.N., Turiyanov A.R., Zagirov R.R. et al., Selection of the optimal acid composition for acidizing low permeable carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 3, pp. 37Ц42.
8. Khuzin R.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Laboratory research of acid concentration and injection rate on wormholing process under reservoir conditions (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2019, no. 4, pp. 356Ц372, DOI: 0.15593/2224-9923/2019.4.5
9. Glushchenko V. N., Ptashko O.A., Filtratrion research of novel acidic compounds for treatment of carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, V. 13, no. 11, pp. 46Ц56.
10. Kanevskaya R.D., Novikov A.V., Methods of wormholes simulation under hydrochloric acid impact on carbonate formations (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 3, pp. 19Ц28.
11. Schechter R.S., Gidley J.L., The change in pore size distribution from surface reactions in porous media, AIChE J., 1969, V. 15, no. 3, pp. 339Ц350.
12. Zolotukhin A.B., Ursin J.-R., Introduction to petroleum reservoir engineering, Kristiansand, Norway: Høyskoleforlaget, Norwegian Academic Press, 2000, 407 p.
13. Mordvinov V. A., Glushchenko V.N., Influence of reservoir properties and composition of acidic solutions on the efficiency of well treatments (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2002, no. 11, pp. 22Ц26.14. Loginov B.G., Malyshev L.G., Garifullin Sh.S., Rukovodstvo po kislotnym obrabotkam skvazhin (Guide to acid treatment of wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 219 p.
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The article provides information and discusses results of the year-round observations of the strength properties of flat and deformed ice at the research site in the Khatanga Bay (Laptev Sea). Field work was carried out by the Far Eastern Federal University and Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in 2019-2020 as part of the Rosneft's research program. Obtained results significantly expanded understanding of the seasonal changes of the strength characteristics of deformed sea ice (hummocks and stamukhas), and also made it possible to determine temperature and strength distribution within the boundaries of an ice formation, that is fundamentally important for assessing its impact on engineering structures. One of the important conclusions is that the ridge sail acts as heat isolation - ice in the keel of the ridge under sail is significantly warmer than ice in the keel outside the sail area. Period when hummocks and stamukhas pose the maximum threat to offshore structures is also determined. These results can be used during design and operations of infrastructure facilities for exploration, production and transportation of hydrocarbons in ice waters of the Russian continental shelf, as well as for conceptual research of marine logistics issues related to the transportation of hydrocarbons along the Northern Sea Route. Adequate thermal and strength models of ice formations are very important for correct implementation of numerical and basin modeling and assessment of ice loads on offshore oil and gas field structures.
1. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Ice and hydrometeorological survey at Khatangskiy license block in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 22Ц27, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-3-22-27
2. Guzenko R.B., Mironov Y.U., May R.I. et al., Morphometry and internal structure of ice ridges in the Kara and Laptev Seas, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2020, V. 30, no.2, pp. 194Ц201.
3. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Special aspects of ice strength seasonal variability in Russian Arctic (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 11, pp. 51Ц56, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-51-55
4. Kovalev S.M., Smirnov V.N., Borodkin V.A. et al., Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Sea Ice in the Kara and Laptev Seas, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 369Ц374.
5. Pavlov V.A., Kornishin K.A., Mironov E.U. et al., Peculiarities of consolidated layer growth of the Kara and Laptev Sea ice ridges (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 49Ц54.
6. Mironov Y.U., Guzenko R.B., Porubaev V.S. et al., Morphometric Parameters of Stamukhas in the Laptev Sea, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 383Ц390, DOI:10.17736/ijope.2019.jc771.
7. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Development of corporative Ice Management System for Arctic license blocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 48-51, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-11-48-51
8. Pavlov V.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Experience in Monitoring and Sizing Up of Icebergs and Ice Features in the South-Western Part of Kara Sea During 2012-2017 (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 82Ц87, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-12-82-879. Buzin I.V., Nesterov A.V., Gudoshniko Y.P. et al., The Preliminary Results of Iceberg Drift Studies in the Russian Arctic Throughout 2012Ц2017, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 391Ц399.
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At each stage of project implementation, including the preparation of technical specifications, the preparing of initial data, a huge number of text and graphic documents are generated, presented in digital form, requiring systematization, multi-factor analysis to make appropriate engineering decisions. Each project document is characterized by its own set of information, which in general makes up an array of hundreds of thousands of documents presented in various forms: maps, passports of technological equipment, text and image files, and dozens of names. In the absence of centralized "leadership" and management, it is difficult to find the necessary information for making decisions and managing production processes.
It is proposed to introduce the concept of "Project Information Asset" (PIA) as a tool for storing, supplementing and managing externally heterogeneous information used at all stages of the project (object) life cycle by means of information technologies. The purpose of the PIA is to form a single information space for the accumulation, updating, structuring of information flows arising in the process of creating and developing projects, making high-quality and sound management and technological decisions based on the accumulated information. The IAP is derived from the tasks, and the task is always derived from the problem that the company faces.
1. Lunin D.A., Minchenko D.A., Noskov A.B. et al., System to improve operational quality of artificial lift wells of Rosneft Oil Company in response to negative impact of complicating factors (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 4, pp. 85Ц91, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-4-86-91
2. Andreeva N.N., Strizhnev K.V., Alekseev Yu.V., First results of work on concept of field test site with public access Bazhen (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 3, pp. 22Ц27, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-22-27
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Gas and gas condensate fields represent the most complex geological and technological systems. For effective field development, technological development indicators must be calculated in the entire hydrocarbon collection system from the reservoir to the main pipeline and meet the number of requirements. The first one is ensuring planned gas extraction and maximum economic efficiency of the field operation, which, as a rule, corresponds to the maximum pressure at the inlet of the booster compressor station (BCS), at which the required compression ratio and fuel gas consumption are lower. The second is ensuring uniform gas withdrawal over the area, stable and safe operation of wells, taking into account all geological and technological constraints, including the maximum permissible drawdown, absence of pipe wall erosion, and hydrate formation. And the third is compliance with the conditions for the protection of subsoil and safety regulations. To calculate technological indicators in practice, simulators for modeling multiphase flow are used (PipeSim, Eclipse with the option Networks, GAP, tNavigator, etc.). The following deficiencies of these simulators were discovered: a) instability of the mathematical computing apparatus for the implementation of digital twins with any structures and a set of characteristics; b) low speed of model calculation (more than 1 min.); c) lack of permanent adaptation to commercial measurements.
At Tyumen Oil Research Center the GasNet Sirius software complex was developed, devoid of the above drawbacks and consisting of two computational cores GasNet-α and GasNet-β. The article provides a rationale for the development of the second GasNet-β core, describes its design scheme, presents a modified method for calculating pressure losses for two-phase flow in pipes developed by the H.D. Beggs and J.P. Brill, which is one of the basic elements in the current circuit. To determine the correctness of the input data and applied correlation dependencies, as well as adjust the model to the actual telemetry data algorithms were developed to search for adaptation coefficients for wells and pipes. An algorithm for calculating the BCS model is presented, in the input data of which all the necessary restrictions and the curve of the efficiency of the manufacturer's plant are taken into account. Comparison of the calculation results with the actual data and calculation results of the PipeSim software product is given using the example of the digital twin of the Beregovoye field.
1. Kharitonov A.N., Pospelova T.A., Loznyuk O.A. et al., Procedure for justifying process conditions of gas and gas condensate wells using integrated models (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 4, pp. 41Ц47.
2. Pospelova T.A., Strekalov A.V., Knyazev S.M., Kharitonov A.N., Realization of digital twins for gas reservoir management process (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2020, no. 1(21), pp. 230Ц242.
3. Strekalov A.V., Matematicheskie modeli gidravlicheskikh sistem dlya upravleniya sistemami podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya (Mathematical models of hydraulic systems for controlling reservoir pressure maintenance systems), Tyumen: Tyumenskiy dom pechati Publ., 2007, 664 p.
4. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999.
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In recent years, more and more oil and gas companies have been getting interested in automated interpretation of geophysical well logging data. Thereat, the automation goals combine considerable acceleration of the data interpretation process and the opportunity to downsize the number of the data interpreters in research and service divisions of the companies with the interpretation quality and uniformity enhancement, knowledge and expertise preservation within the company, etc. Nowadays, the principal approaches to the digitalization of the data interpretation process are working out versatile or, to the contrary, highly special algorithms by the relevant professionals, and the use of machine learning means. However, the three approaches mentioned above have certain disadvantages: in the first case, the applicability of the algorithms to solving specific tasks may be problematic, while in the second the algorithms are too specific and hardly adaptable to changing conditions. At the same time, the application of neural networks is an extremely obscure method complicated by low controllability of the automated processes. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the automation means offered herein require a geophysicist to have certain programming skills, and as the tasks to be solved are becoming more and more complicated, such restriction is becoming increasingly substantial.
As a possible solution of the problems described above, we offer a concept of a digital apprentice for log interpretation (DALI). An interactive system of such type provides a geophysicist with an opportunity to easily and quickly formalize his own observations and actions while working with well-log curves, interacting with the DALI directly in the course of the interpretation. The training results in such data processing script, all steps of which may be represented in a simple readable form; thereat, special attention is paid to visual patterns on well-log curves for an interpreter to be governed by. The DALI is particularly notable for high flexibility of the algorithms it generate, that is, their ability to be automatically adjusted and supplemented when new extraordinary situations occur in the course of the interpretation, as well as for the lookback analysis, thanks to which all the changes introduced into the data processing script are verified in real time basing on already processed material.
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Digital modernization of oil and gas ecosystems Ц 2018 (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 2 (21), pp. 1Ц12.
2. Belozerov B.V., Bukhanov N.V., Egorov D.V. et al., Automatic well log analysis across Priobskoe field using machine learning methods (In Russ.), SPE-191604-18RPTC-RU, 2018, DOI:10.2118/191604-18RPTC-MS.
3. Minikeeva L.R., Nadezhdin O.V., Nugumanov E.R. et al., Development of methods for automation of multi-well logging data interpretation and core analysis (in Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 54Ц57, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-54-57
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The article presents a brief description of the SamaraneftegasТs software for determining the precipitation of calcium carbonate and sulphate, the formation of iron sulphide when mixing different types of water with each other and predictive rationing of the quality of wastewater when injected into reservoirs. The article highlights the features of computer programs for engineering calculation methods and the scope of their application in problems for various technological processes of oil and gas production. The calculation program for the assessment of salt deposition in the determination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) takes into account the dependence of all constants on mineralization, in the determination of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) uses three methods: with strict conditions, averaged and taking into account elevated temperature and magnesium ions. The Iron Sulphide Precipitation Assessment (FeS) program takes into account the excess of one component over another (H2S and Fe2+). The program for rationing water quality for flooding takes into account a unique base of a reference sample of values of indirect search signs for recognizing the type of reservoir of an oil deposit. The choice of the reservoir type with engineering calculations of the stability and compatibility of reservoir waters using computational programs that take into account the unique properties and high mineralization of the waters of the deposits of the Volga-Ural region allows choosing the optimal strategy for organizing the system of oil collection, oil treatment, reservoir pressure maintenance and waste water disposal at all stages of the design and operation of oilfield facilities. The programs are also suitable for use in the selection of well silencing fluid and the prevention of salt deposits in the process of oil production.
1. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2012610037. KARSULM. Otsenka stabil'nosti i sovmestimosti plastovykh vod po karbonatu i sul'fatu kal'tsiya (KARSULM. Assessment of the stability and compatibility of formation waters for calcium carbonate and sulphate), Authors: Andreev V.I., Grishagin A.V.
2. Allison, J.D., D.S. Brown, Novo-Gradac K.J., UserТs Manual. EPA/600/3-91/021. MINTEQA2/PRODEFA2, A Geochemical Assessment Model for Environmental Systems. Version 3.0., Athens, Georgia: EPA, 1991.
3. Parkhurst D.L., Appelo C.A.J. UserТs guide to PHREEQC (version 2) Ч a computer program forspeciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, Denver, Colorado, USA, 1999.
4. Andreev V.I., Grishagin A.V., Red'kin I.I., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie karbonatnoy stabil'nosti i sovmestimosti plastovykh vod v sistemakh sbora, podgotovki i utilizatsii stochnykh vod (Mathematical modeling of carbonate stability and compatibility of formation waters in wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems), Proceedings of Giprovostokneft, Kuybyshev, 1985, рр. 148Ц154.
5. Grishagin A.V., Andreev V.I., Formation water stability and compatibility evaluation for the oil fields of the Volga Urals region by carbonate and calcium sulfate (In Russ.), Neft', gaz, novatsii, 2012, no. 3, pp. 24-28.6. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2014616232. FeS. Programma dlya vychisleniya soderzhaniya sul'fida zheleza pri smeshenii serovodorodsoderzhashchikh i zhelezosoderzhashchikh vod Otsenka stabil'nosti i sovmestimosti plastovykh vod po karbonatu i sul'fatu kal'tsiya (FeS. A program for calculating the content of iron sulfide when mixing hydrogen sulfide and iron-containing waters Assessment of the stability and compatibility of formation waters for carbonate and calcium sulfate), Authors: Andreev V.I., Grishagin A.V.
7. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2014616051. PROGNorm. Prognoznoe normirovanie kachestva stochnykh vod dlya vnutrikonturnogo zavodneniya issleduemykh neftyanykh zalezhey (PROGNorm. Predictive standardization of wastewater quality for in-circuit waterflooding of the studied oil deposits), Authors: Grishagin A.V., Andreev V.I.
8. Grishagin A.V., Andreev V.I., Substantiation of quality standards of reservoir and surface waters or their mixtures at oil fields reservoirs flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 8, pp. 96Ц98.
9. Grishagin A.V., Andreev V.I., Vakulenko S.N., On expedience of joint or individual gathering of heterogeneous products out coming from oil wells (In Russ.), Neft', gaz, novatsii, 2011, no. 8, pp. 46Ц51.
10. Grishagin A.V., Andreev V.I., Manasyan A.E. et al., Formation waters or their mixtures with surface water applicability as possible agent for reservoir water-flooding purposes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 44Ц49.
11. Grishagin A.V., Akif'eva L.A., Dolganova G.I. et al., Geological-and-hydrological substantiation brine pumping into absorbing beds (geological horizon) in Samara Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 6, pp. 48Ц51.12. Grishagin A.V., Fedotkina O.S., Kruglov E.A., Veprinyak P.A., On aspects referred to the selection of the source for mixing-up the well-kill fluids for central and southern groups of Samaraneftegaz JSC oil fields (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO УNK УRosneft'Ф, 2013, no. 3, pp. 37Ц42.
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|RATIONAL USE OF ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS|
Eastern Siberia is a relatively new and intensively developing oil and gas production region in Russia. One of the largest fields is the Verkhnechonskoye oil-gas-condensate field in the Irkutsk region. This field was launched into commercial development in 2008. With increasing oil production, there arose a question of associated petroleum gas utilization. The first design documents provided for the use of gas for own needs such as power and heat generation and oil treatment. However, that required only insignificant portion of produced associated petroleum gas. Building a commercial power plant to provide electricity to the north of the Irkutsk region and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), as well as supplying gas to the SiburТs gas processing plant in Kirensk were also considered as possible solutions to the problem. However, significant amounts of power were unclaimed in the region, and the need to build an extended export gas pipeline threatened the project economics. To prevent air pollution by flaring and to preserve valuable fluids, it was decided to organize temporary underground gas storage by injecting the produced associated petroleum gas into a reservoir with the potential for future sales when the gas infrastructure of the region is developed enough. The accumulated experience, developed approaches and technological solutions can be applied to objects in Eastern Siberia with similar geological and physical characteristics.
1. Resheniya chetvertogo mezhvedomstvennogo regional'nogo soveshchaniya po utochneniyu i dopolneniyu stratigraficheskikh skhem venda i kembriya vnutrennikh rayonov Sibirskoy platformy (Decisions of the fourth Interdepartmental Regional Stratigraphic Meeting to clarify and supplement the Vendian and Cambrian stratigraphic schemes of the inner regions of the Siberian Platform), Novosibirsk: SNIIGGiMS, 1989, 64 p.
2. Mel'nikov N.V., Vend-kembriyskiy solenosnyy basseyn Sibirskoy platformy (Stratigrafiya, istoriya razvitiya) (Vendian-Cambrian salt basin of the Siberian Platform (Stratigraphy, development history)), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2009, 148 p.
3. Nikitin B.A., Basniev K.S., Aliev Z.S. et al., Metodika opredeleniya zaboynogo davleniya v naklonnykh gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh (Method for determining bottomhole pressure in deviated horizontal wells), St. Petersburg: Publ. of IRTs Gazprom, 1997, 17 p.
4. Gritsenko A.I., Aliev Z.S., Ermilov O.M. et al., Rukovodstvo po issledovaniyu skvazhin (Guidance on the study of wells), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1995, 523 p.
5. . Chirgun A., Livanov A., Gordeev Ya. et al., A case study of the Verkhnechonskoye field: Theory and practice of Eastern Siberia complex reservoirs development (In Russ.), SPE-189301-RU, 2017.
6. Levanov A.N., Belyanskiy V.Yu., Anur'ev D.A. et al., Concept baseline for the development of a major complex field in Eastern Siberia using flow simulation (In Russ.), SPE 176636-RU, 2015.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
At the facilities of the oil and gas industry, underground water intakes are used for drinking, household, fire-fighting water supply, as well as for providing reservoir pressure maintenance systems, especially in the conditions of the Far North, when the use of surface water sources is difficult. According to statistical data, over the 10 years of operation, the flow rate decreases several times as a result of physical, chemical and biological colmatage. To solve this problem, a technology of high-pressure wave intensification of well flow rates in depression conditions has been developed, which ensures the removal of the products of aquifer dissociation at the wellhead, sparing cleaning of the filter zone, the sump and the entire wellbore. From the point of view of ensuring energy efficiency, the technology of low-pressure wave intensification of well flows, for shallow wells, is proposed due to the realized developed cavitation outflow and its accompanying secondary effects. When performing the work, probabilistic and statistical methods of processing the initial field information and experimental methods for studying the effect of vibration with different amplitude-frequency characteristics on rocks were used. Numerical simulation of turbulent submerged jets was performed using the STAR-CCM+ software package (CFD modeling). The optimal design parameters of axisymmetric cavitation generators of various designs were determined. The results provide satisfactory convergence with the experimental data.
The novelty and uniqueness of the developed technological solutions is confirmed by the patents of the Russian Federation for inventions. Practical testing was carried out on more than 500 wells for drinking, economic and fire-fighting purposes in the Krasnodar, Stavropol and Perm territories, Rostov, Astrakhan, Saratov regions, Khanty-Mansiysk Yamalo-Nenets autonomous districts, and other regions of the Russian Federation. The success rate of treatments exceeds 95%, the minimum increase in the flow rate after treatments is 30-50%, the maximum recorded is 7800%. The effect is long-term.
1. Bondaletova L.I., Promyshlennaya ekologiya (Industrial ecology), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2002, 168 p.
3. Dyblenko V.P., Kamalov R.N., Shariffulin R.Ya., Tufanov I.A., Povyshenie produktivnosti i reanimatsiya skvazhin s primeneniem vibrovolnovogo vozdeystviya (Increasing productivity and reanimation of wells using vibrowave impact), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 381 p.
4. Ibragimov L.Kh., Mishchenko I.T., Cheloyants D.K., Intensifikatsiya dobychi nefti (Oil well stimulation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2000, 414 p.
5. Zaporozhets E.P., Zibert G.K., Zaporozhets E.E., Gidrodinamicheskaya kavitatsiya (svoystva, raschety, primenenie) (Hydrodynamic cavitation (properties, calculations, application)), Collected papers УPodgotovka i pererabotka gaza i gazovogo kondensataФ (Preparation and processing of gas and gas condensate), Moscow: Publ. of IRTs Gazprom, 2003, 130 p.
6. Patent RU 2 652 397 C1, Down hole ejection unit, Invetors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A.
7. Patent no. 2542015 C1 RF, Rotary hydraulic vibrator, Inventors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A.
8. Patent RU 2 717 163 C1, Treatment method of borehole zone of productive formation, Inventors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., Rogozin A.A.
8. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Technique and technology of physical and chemical recovery of well flow rates (In Russ.), Voda i ekologiya: problemy i resheniya, 2017, no. 2(70), pp. 90Ц105.
9. Dzoz N.A., Zhulay Yu.A., Initsiirovanie vodyanykh skvazhin putem kavitatsionnogo gidrodinamicheskogo vozdeystviya (Initiation of water wells by cavitation hydrodynamic action), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 2008, pp. 345Ц350.
10. Shibanov B.V., Sovershenstvovanie protsessa vosstanovleniya gidrogeologicheskikh skvazhin s pomoshch'yu tsentrobezhnykh vibrogeneratorov (Improvement of the process of restoration of hydrogeological wells using centrifugal vibration generators): thesis of candidate of technical science, 2007.
11. Lomakin V.O. Petrov A.I. Kuleshova N.S., Investigation of two-phase flow in an axial centrifugal wheel by hydrodynamic modeling methods (In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie: nauchnoe izdanie MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 2014, no. 9, pp. 45-64.
12. Sun S., Wu K., Huang Y. et al., Numerical simulation on flow field and cavitation in scroll hydraulic pump, Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering, 2017, V. 35(2), pp. 100Ц105.
13. Liu X., Hu Q., Shi G., Zhao Q., Cavitation characteristics of multiphase pump at low flow rate, Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering, 2018, V. 036(1), pp. 15Ц20.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The analysis of three main designs of gas separators, which are currently available on the domestic market of oil production equipment, is considered in the article. The ability of gas separators of various execution types to effectively separate gas and maintain their separation characteristics after partial wear of the working elements are discussed. The article provides statistical data on the failure of downhole pumping equipment at one of the fields in Western Siberia. To highlight the issue in more detail the following criteria were used: failed is gas separator, there are hydroabrasive wear traces of the thermowell and through flushes of the gas separator body. In addition to the field statistics, the complex laboratory test results of various gas separator designs are presented with the determination of the separation efficiency before and after the working elements wear. The destructive effects concentration areas were determined with the wear depth and distance measuring at the end of the laboratory tests. The level of consumed electrical energy was determined in laboratory tests, and thereby such a parameter as energy efficiency was assessed for all three types of gas separators. Based on the field statistics and the laboratory test results of three gas separators of three different designs, preliminary conclusions were drawn regarding the optimal operation of various gas separator designs. The economic component of the use of a particular gas separator design was analyzed and conclusions about the optimal application areas of various gas separator designs and ways to increase the resistance to abrasive wear were drawn.
1. Lysenko V.D., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Teoriya i praktika (Development of oil fields. Theory and practice), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 367 p.
2. Volkov M.G., Mikhaylov V.G., Petrov P.V., The research of gaz-liquid mix structure influence on gazseparation process efficiency in the centrifugal gasseparator (In Russ.), Vestnik UGATU, 2012, v. 16, no. 5(50), pp. 93Ц99.
3. Tronov V.P., Separatsiya gaza i sokrashchenie poter' nefti (Gas separation and reduction of oil losses), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2002.
4. Molchanov G.V., Molchanov A.G., Mashiny i oborudovanie dlya dobychi nefti i gaza (Machines and equipment for oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984.
5. Volkov M.G., Razrabotka metodov rascheta tsentrobezhnykh gazoseparatorov pri ekspluatatsii ETsN v usloviyakh vysokogo gazovogo faktora (Development of methods for calculating centrifugal gas separators during the operation of an ESP under conditions of a high gas factor): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2012.
6. Volkov M.G., Calculation method to obtain operational characteristics of a rotary centrifugal gas-separator (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 12, pp. 57Ц62.7. Ageev Sh.R., Berman A.V., Oborudovanie dlya dobychi nefti s vysokim soderzhaniem svobodnogo gaza i opyt ego ekspluatatsii (Equipment for oil production with a high free gas content and experience of its operation), Collected papers УESP Workshop 2005Ф, 2010, no. 1, pp. 1Ц10, https://www.novometgroup.com/science_files/512810572005.pdf
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
Due to the increasing volume of chemical reagents used in oil treatment, repair work and for intensification of oil production, anti-salt deposits, heavy oil deposites, asphaltene sediments, formation of emulsions, corrosion the technological processes of collecting and preparing oil become more complicated, which leads to the formation of intermediate layers and a failure of the technological regime of oil preparation. It leads to the formation of intermediate layers and failure of the technological mode of oil treatment. The research is aimed at studying the effect of the products of hydrochloric acid well treatment reactions on the kinetics of oil-water emulsion destruction, on the performance of oil desalting process, on the quality of water treatment. The research results have shown that products of reactions of hydrochloric acid treatment of wells and decrease in pH value of the aqueous phase influences kinetics of oil-water emulsion destruction at oil treatment plants. The stability of oil-water emulsion increases with decreasing the pH value of water. The amount of oil-water emulsion formed with water with low pH value, which affects the quality of oil treatment, has been determined. The possibility of breaking the stable water-oil emulsion formed by water with low pH value when increasing from pH=3.1 to pH=6.5 by NaOH solution has been evaluated. Laboratory researches have been carried out to determine influence on water treatment quality and time needed for water treatment to the quality required by design documents taking into account products of hydrochloric acid well treatment reactions received at oil treatment unit. It was also found that treatment of oil with hydrochloric acid does not affect the quality of water treatment. Measures to minimize the risks of failure of the technological mode at the oil treatment plants due to the formation of persistent oil-water emulsions are proposed.
1. Wang X., Alvarado A., Effect of salinity and pH on pickering emulsion stability, SPE-115941-MS, 2008, DOI:10.2118/115941-MS.
2. Kumar K., Nikolov A.D., Wasan D.T., Mechanisms of stabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2001, V. 40(14), pp. 3009Ц3014.
3. Kazemzadeha Y., Ismailb I., Rezvanic H. et al., Experimental investigation of stability of water in oil emulsions at reservoir conditions: Effect of ion type, ion concentration, and system pressure, Fuel, 2019, V. 243, pp. 15Ц27.
4. Wong S.F., Lim J.S., Dol S.S., Crude oil emulsion: A review on formation, classification and stability of water-in-oil emulsions, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2015, V. 135, pp. 498Ц504, DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2015.10.006.5. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO УVNIIOENGФ, 2005, pp. 9Ц31.
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An important condition for the successful operation of an oil production enterprise is the provision of a given level of oil production and its preparation in accordance with the current regulations. Among the quality indicators of commercial oil, special attention is required to control the content of volatile organochlorine compounds (OCC) in the fraction boiling up to a temperature of 204 ∞ C (GOST R 51858-2002), since the technological design of oil treatment facilities does not allow cleaning oil from OCC in case their concentration exceeds over regulated values. This paper presents the experience of organizing control over the change in the concentration of OCC in well products and commercial oils on the example of one of the large field oil treatment facilities of JSC Samaraneftegas. It is shown that the concentration of OCC in commercial oil depends on the content of natural organochlorine compounds, geological and technical measures and the use of oilfield reagents. Information on the background content of natural (native) OCC in well production is presented. The average content of native OCC in oil for the studied objects is 1.1 ppm, among which the presence of high molecular weight chlorine-substituted paraffinic hydrocarbons of linear or weakly branched structure with boiling points above 204 ∞C is recorded. The results of the field assessment of the impact of some types of geological and technical measures on the dynamics of changes in forestry and chemical treatment are presented. Preliminary results showed that geological and technical measures lead to an increase in the content of OCC in the well production, but not higher than the regulated values. The results of the studies (taking into account the continuation of the accumulation of statistical information) can be the basis for predicting changes in forest chemical treatment facilities for oil treatment facilities (nodal mixing points), determining the most "problematic" areas, adjusting geological and technical measure plans in order to ensure control of the forest chemical treatment plant content and exclude situations leading to an increase in their concentration in commercial oil.
1. Sinev A.V., Devyashin T.V., Kunakova A.M. et al., The problem of the formation of volatile organochlorine compounds during the initial distillation of oil as a result of decomposition of chemicals containing salts of quaternary ammonium compounds (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 4(14), pp. 63Ц68.
2. Krikun N.G., Lost control. Problems of chemical products in the Russian oil industry (In Russ.), TekhNADZOR, 2012, no. 8(69), pp. 40Ц41.
3. Kozlov C.A., Frolov D.A., Kuz'mina E.P. et al., Establishment of reasons for the formation of chloric-organic compounds in commodity oil (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 5(605), pp. 64Ц69.
4. Tat'yanina O.S., Abdrakhmanova L.M., Sudykin S.N., Zhilina E.V., Obrazovanie legkoletuchikh khlororganicheskikh soedineniy pri pervichnoy peregonke nefti v rezul'tate razlozheniya khimicheskikh reagentov, soderzhashchikh soli chetvertichnykh ammonievykh soedineniy (Formation of volatile organochlorine compounds during primary distillation of oil as a result of decomposition of chemical reagents containing salts of quaternary ammonium compounds), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', Naberezhnye Chelny: Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz Publ., 2017, V. 85, pp. 363Ц369.
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During the operation of main pipelines, in the event of a violation of their anti-corrosion coating and electrochemical protection, corrosion defects of the pipe surface may occur, which significantly reduce the bearing capacity of the pipeline. At present, to assess the strength of a pipeline with corrosion damage, semi-empirical dependences are mainly used, justified in a limited area of geometric parameters and mechanical properties of pipe metal. To solve such problems of the strength of corroded pipelines, it is possible to use numerical methods. To do this, you need to have expensive licensed software for performing calculations and highly qualified personnel. Also, this approach is difficult when it is necessary to assess the strength of a large number of pipes with corrosion defects, which is the case in trunk pipelines.
In this article, a solution to the problem of the bearing capacity of a cylindrical shell with an axisymmetric thinning of a rectangular wall is obtained, based on a finite (non-differential) relationship between the forces and moments of A.A. Ilyushin for ideally plastic materials and the equilibrium equation of a cylindrical shell. For a pipeline with asymmetric corrosion thinning, the bearing capacity is determined by interpolation (calculation of intermediate values) of the proposed solution and ratios for the bearing capacity of a pipe with crack-like corrosion-mechanical defects in ductile fracture. For comparison with the proposed approach, a computer simulation of the bearing capacity of a circular cylindrical shell with rectangular thinning was carried out using a software package that implements the finite element method. The comparative analysis made it possible to confirm the possibility of using the results of the work in practical applications.
1. Barbosa A.A., Teixeira A.P., Soares C.G., Strength analysis of corroded pipelines subjected to internal pressure and bending moment, Proceedings of 6th International Conference On Marine Structures, 2017, DOI:10.1201/9781315157368-91
2. Benjamin A.C., Vieira R.D., Freire J.L.F., de Castro J.T.P., Modified equation for the assessment of long corrosion defects, Proceedings of OMAEТ01 20th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 2001, June 3Ц8, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249657141_Modified_Equation_for_the_Assessment_of_Long_Corr...
3. Amaya-Gómez R., Sánchez-Silva M., Bastidas-Arteaga E. et al., Reliability assessments of corroded pipelines based on internal pressure Ц A review, Engineering Failure Analysis, Elsevier, 2019, DOI:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2019.01.064.
4. Xu L., Assessment of corrosion defects on high-strength steel pipelines: thesis of PhD, Calgary, 2013, doi:10.11575/PRISM/25027
5. Orasheva J., The effect of corrosion defects on the failure of oil and gas transmission pipelines: A finite element modeling study: Master's Thesis, College of Computing, Engineering & Construction, 2017, URL: https://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ etd/763/
6. Khazhinskiy G.M., Mekhanika melkikh treshchin v raschetakh prochnosti oborudovaniya i truboprovodov (Mechanics of small cracks in strength calculations for equipment and pipelines), Moscow: Fizmatkniga Publ., 2008, 254 p.
7. Korolev V.I., Uprugo-plasticheskie deformatsii obolochek (Elastic-plastic deformation of shells), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1971.
8. Il'yushin A.A., Plastichnost' (Plasticity), Moscow: Gostekhizdat Publ., 1948.
9. Kiefner J.F., Maxey W.A., Eiber R.J., Duffy failure stress levels of flaws in pressurized cylinders, In: Progress in flaw growth and fracture toughness testing: edited by Kaufman J. et al., West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 1973, pp. 461-481, https://doi.org/10.1520/STP49657S
10. Neganov D.A., Varshitskiy V.M., Belkin A.A., Computational and experimental studies of the strength of full-scale samples of pipes with defects "metal loss" and "dent with groove" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 3, pp. 226Ц233.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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