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|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
One of the priority areas of Zarubezhneft's work is the search for marginal projects in the Andean subregion of Latin America (in particular Ecuador), as well as the Arab Republic of Egypt, and the correct assessment of capital investments in the construction of onshore infrastructure at the stage of project evaluation. According to a study by Independent Project Analysis, just over a fifth of large projects in the oil and gas industry can be called successful in terms of meeting the stated cost and time constraints. The expediency of obtaining the necessary and sufficient information about the pricing policy, applied approaches to pricing, state and regional prices, the cost of material and technical resources and other aspects before making a decision to enter a particular region is noted.
The article discusses the results of a comparative analysis of the cost of services and facilities in Ecuador and Egypt based on the following information: 1) data from actually implemented construction contracts in the region in 2018Ц2020; 2) data from the IHS Markit database; 3) information on the composition of typical facilities of the design institute of Zarubezhneft; 4) analysis of differences in aggregated pricing methods in Russia, Ecuador, Egypt and IHS Markit (the differences are reduced to a single indicator for determining the cost). Comparison of the results of calculating the cost of various types of objects based on the IHS Markit database with the actual prices in the region showed both an increase and a decrease in cost. It has been established that in order to bring the received value of the objects to the prices of Ecuador, it is necessary to use the cost adaptation coefficients in IHS Markit: for objects containing technological equipment, the estimated reduction coefficient is 0.8; for objects with prevailing costs of construction and installation work, the estimated multiplying factor is 1.6. For the conditions of Egypt, the comparison showed that for linear and treatment facilities the cost, provided in the estimates of Zarubezhneft, exceeds the actual figures by 11-21%. The main reason for this is higher labor costs, while the cost of material and technical resources corresponds to the price level of Egypt. It was noted that the development of projects requires preliminary information from local sources on the actual prices.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
In article demonstrate scheme of mechanism to form domains with different energy potential in upper mantle and earthly crust. This mechanism proposed by T. Gold (USA). According present mechanism the inflow of hydrocarbons exist below to earthly crust based on following established phenomena: 1) large spread hydrocarbons in Solar System; 2) origin of hydrocarbons according Fischer Ц Tropsch process; 3) stable hydrocarbons against thermal dissociation under high temperature and presser; 4) deep-seated origin of methane, which plays a role of a solvent to hydrocarbons include heavy ones. The scheme of formation domains as objects with interconnection crack porous divided impermeable zones occurs in regions with slight concentration of hydrocarbons. Only in this case, methane moving upward, capturing scattered helium (and argon) along the way and saturated with volatile components under conditions of static equilibrium in the rocks, is able to create a pressure in the upper part of the forming lower domain that exceeds the lithostatic (geostatic) pressure. When the ultimate strength of rocks is exceeded, a short-term rupture of their continuity and "overflow" of fluids through the impermeable zone into the upper domain with hydrostatic pressure and subsequent УsealingФ of the lower domain occur. The described mechanism determines the stepwise character of the curve of the change in gyrostatic pressure with depth with its periodic transition to the curve of geostatic pressure.
The real geology of modern oil and gas bearing areas causes different interpretations of the proposed mechanism. Of these, the most relevant is the assumption that this mechanism allows to expect the formation of the next domain in discovered oil and gas bearing areas, where there are all hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and other conditions for this.
1. Muslimov R.Kh., Glumov I.F., Plotnikova I.N. et al., Oil and gas fields - self-developing and constantly renewable objects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, Special Issue, 2004, pp. 43Ц49.
2. Muslimov R.Kh., Plotnikova I.N., Modeling the development of oil fields, considering the mature fields reforming and refill by the deep hydrocarbons (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 56Ц60, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-56-60.
3. Gold T., Origin of natural gas and oil (In Russ.), Zhurnal Vsesoyuznogo khimicheskogo obshchestva im. D.I. Mendeleeva, 1986, no. 5, pp. 547Ц556.
4. Gold T, Soter S., Fluid ascent through the solid lithosphere and its relation to earthquakes, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 1985, V. 122, pp. 492-530.
5. Trofimov V.A., Korchagin V.I., Oil supply channels: spatial position, detection methods and methods of their activation (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2002, no. 31(9), pp. 18Ц23.
6. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.7. Lozin E.V., On tectonics preconditions to form an oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 4, pp. 18Ц22, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-4-18-22
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On the basis of the simulation method, an algorithm is proposed for transforming a simulation set of deposits into a simulation set of fields. It is assumed that the probabilistic distribution of hydrocarbon deposits by mass is a truncated Pareto distribution, and their spatial distribution over the territory of the oil and gas basin is described by a non-stationary Poisson point field. Considering, as a first approximation, the shape of the reservoir as circular, it is possible to obtain a simulated set of deposits in the basin, as a group of deposits that, in projection onto the earth's surface, completely or partially overlap their contours.
The algorithm can be used to assess the structure of the resources of an oil and gas basin for a quantitative forecast of its oil and gas content, in particular, when assessing the distribution of the amount and total resources of hydrocarbons at specified size intervals for deposits and fields. In addition, an explanation is proposed for the empirically established dependence of the distribution of oil and gas bearing basin deposits in terms of the number of deposits they contain. It is shown that this distribution can be a consequence of the definition of a deposit as a geometric object consisting of deposits, the projections of which on the earth's surface have complete or partial overlapping of their contours.
1. Shpil'man V.I., Kolichestvennyy prognoz neftegazonosnosti (Quantitative forecast of oil and gas content), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 215 p.
2. Kontorovich A.E., Demin V.I., Method for estimating the quantity and distribution by reserves of oil and gas fields in large oil and gas basins (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1977, no. 12, pp. 18Ц26.
3. Kontorovich A.E., Demin V.I., Forecast quantity and distribution of oil and gas reserves (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1979, no. 3, pp. 26Ц46.
4. Kontorovich A.E., Burshteyn L.M., Gurevich G.S. et al., Kolichestvennaya otsenka perspektiv neftegazonosnosti slaboizuchennykh regionov (Quantitative assessment of the prospects for oil and gas potential of poorly studied regions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 223 p.
5. Kontorovich A.E., Sedimentary-migration theory of naphthydogenesis: state at the turn of XX and XXI centuries, ways of further development (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1998, no. 10, pp. 8Ц16.
6. Burshteyn L.M., Possible control of size distr1bution of oil and gas fields (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2004, V. 45, no. 7, pp. 815Ц825.
7. Livshits V.R., Lateral migration of hydrocarbons as a possible mechanism of origin of their power-law distribution by mass (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2017, no. 3Ц4, pp. 372Ц383.
8. Livshits V.R., Law of size distribution of oil and gas fields (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2020, V. 331, no. 6, pp. 41Ц47.
9. Kontorovich A.E., Livshits V.R., New methods of assessment, structure, and development of oil and gas resources of mature petroleum provinces (Volga-Ural province) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2017, no. 12, pp. 1835Ц1852.
10. Kontorovich A.E., Livshits V.R., Burshteyn L.M., Kurchikov A.R., Assessment of the initial, promising, and predicted geologic and recoverable oil resources of the West Siberian petroleum province and their structure (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2021, no. 5, pp. 711Ц 726.
11. Kontorovich A.E., Livshits V.R., Simulation stochastic model of the distribution of oil and gas fields by resources (In Russ.), Sovetskaya.geologiya, 1988, no. 9, pp. 99Ц107.
12. Kontorovich A., Domain V., Livshitc V., Size distribution and dynamics of oil and gas field discoveries in petroleum basins, AAPG Bulletin, 2001, V. 85, no. 9, pp. 1609Ц1622.
13. Ambartsumyan R.V., Mekke Y, Shtoyyan D., Vvedenie v stokhasticheskuyu geometriyu (Introduction to stochastic geometry), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1989, 400 p.
14. Livshits V.R., Distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations in a basin: a mathematical model for the West Siberian petroleum (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2010, no. 2, pp. 201Ц205 .15. Lipskiy Yu.N., Rodionova Zh.F., Skobeleva T.P., Dekhtyareva K.I., Katalog kraterov Marsa i statistika kraterov Marsa, Merkuriya i Luny (Mars craters catalog and statistics of Mars, Mercury and Moon craters), Moscow: Publ. of Geological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1977, 69 p.
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Rosneft has been conducting geological exploration in the Northern Caspian since 2005. Mesozoic deposits - the conventional objects of hydrocarbon prospecting in the region - are characterized by high success ratio, relatively small size and low profitability. Unique fields such as Tengiz, Kashagan, Tsentralno-Astrakhanskoye have been discovered in the Upper Paleozoic complex in the north part of Northern Caspian along the basin boundary. Until recently, these subsalt deposits were not considered as a promising direction for hydrocarbon exploration in Rosneft license blocks, which are located south of the Precaspian syneclise, within the Northern Caspian fold-thrust zone. To evaluate prospectivity of the Paleozoic complex, the Company carried out regional geological studies. Vintage geological and geophysical data of the adjacent onshore and offshore areas were analyzed, reference wells and 2D seismic profiles were acquired. Part of vintage 2D seismic lines was reprocessed with unified graph, significant increase in information was obtained.
Based on the results of structural interpretation, uplifts were localized within the Northern Caspian fold-thrust zone, which can be traps for oil and gas accumulations. In addition, all elements of the oil and gas system were described. In the Caspian syneclise, the reservoirs in the Paleozoic complex are carbonate formations of Late Devonian - Early Permian age. In the Northern Caspian fold-thrust zone, several meters of shallow-water Middle Carboniferous limestones were penetrated by drilling. An interval with decreased frequency and constant thickness is distinguished in the wave field, which is identified as carbonate platform similar to the platform established in Astrakhanskoye field. The Kungurian salt-bearing strata and Artinskian shale deposits act as a seal for discovered Paleozoic fields. In the Northern Caspian fold-thrust zone Kungurian stratum is eroded over most of the uplifts, while the Lower Permian terrigenous complex is characterized by lithological heterogeneity in the region. Thus, sealing is key risk for the area. According to the existing models, accumulations in Mesozoic strata formed due to HC leakage from Paleozoic deposits. Thus, the discovered fields in the Jurassic section allow us to conclude that in the Northern Caspian fold-thrust zone the risks of source rock presence and migration pathways presence are minimal, but there are substantial risks related to the preservation of pre-salt hydrocarbon accumulations. As a result of regional work, prospectivity of new for this area subsalt Paleozoic complex was identified, the resource potential was increased, and the territory was ranked according to the geological risks.
1. Kunitsyna I.V., Derduga A.V., Nikishin A.M., Korotkova M.A., Tectonic framework and history of Palaeozoic series evolution in Northern Caspian (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2020, no. 3, pp. 11Ц18.
2. Bochkarev A.V., Ostroukhov S.B., Bochkarev V.A. et al., The condition of Ukatnoe oil&gas field formation (Nord Caspian) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 11, pp. 4Ц13.
3. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p
4. Pronin A.P., Shestoperova L.V., Lithological and stratigraphic characteristics of the Rre-Jurassic deposits of the North Caspian uplift (In Russ.), Nedra Povolzh'ya i Prikaspiya, 2019, V. 99, pp. 35Ц47.
5. Volozh Yu.A., Parasyna V.S., Astrakhanskiy karbonatnyy massiv. Stroenie i neftegazonosnost' (Astrakhan carbonate massif. Structure and oil and gas content), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2008, 222 p.
6. Glumov I.F., Malovitskiy Ya.P., Novikov A.A., Senin B.V., Regional'naya geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Kaspiyskogo morya (Regional geology and oil and gas potential of the Caspian Sea), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, 342 p.
7. Afanasenkov A.P., Skvortsov M.B., Nikishin A.M. et al., Geological history and oil systems of the North Caspian (In Russ.), Vestnik MGU imeni M.V. Lomonosova. Ser. 4. Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2008, no. 3, pp. 3Ц10.
8. Pronin A.P., Shestoperova L.V., Lower Permian deposits of the North Caspian uplift (north part of water area of the Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan) (In Russ.), Nedra Povolzh'ya i Prikaspiya, 2020, V. 101, pp. 37-47.
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The high degree of knowledge of traditional search objects in the Volga-Ural region, as well as a significant reduction in the fund of structures, determine the need for additional study of the prospects for less studied areas. For most of the Udmurt Kama region, one of those are the intraformational Mozhginsky and Sarapulsky troughs of the Kama-Kinel system. The article discusses the paleogeographic features of the development of troughs, as well as organogenic massifs and structures in their depression and near-edge areas. A number of factors and conditions affecting the oil-bearing capacity of organogenic structures are presented. It is noted that the key oil-bearing criterion for the geological conditions of the side and axial trough zones is the presence of reliable fluid seal rocks. At the same time, the presence of a thick stratum of Lower Carboniferous clay sediments covering the bed of troughs in a cloak-like manner determines the productivity of bioherm bodies directly. Based on this, it was assumed that the optimal amplitude of buildings in the depression and side sections is no more than 200 and 100 meters, respectively. Under the conditions of filling the troughs with clayey sediments of increased thickness and the possible destruction of the tops of the buildings, a significant number of organogenic bodies of the Upper Fransian-Lower Famennian age is assumed. One of the possible exploratory signs of organogenic structures is associated with the direction of the local increase in the thickness of the underlying carbonate strata of the Rechitsa horizon. The necessity of orienting seismic techniques for identifying low-amplitude faults in terrigenous, as well as zones of disintegration (microfracturing) in the carbonate Devonian is noted. With regard to the features of the areal development of organogenic bodies, one should take into account their tendency to form groups of several buildings. It is concluded that it is advisable to continue the work with the aim of searching for promising reef objects in the study area.
1. Yakimov A.S., Bakun N.N., Ermolova T.E., Volkov D.S., Seismogeological criteria for the identification and features of the structure and oil-bearing capacity of organogenic structures in the north-east of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 1, pp. 52Ц62.
2. Volkov D.S., Osobennosti i metody izucheniya geologicheskogo stroeniya verkhnedevonsko-kamennougol'nykh otlozheniy severo-vostoka Respubliki Tatarstan i poisk organogennykh postroek v osevoy zone Kamsko-Kinel'skoy sistemy progibov (Features and methods of studying the geological structure of the Upper Devonian-Carboniferous deposits of the northeast of the Republic of Tatarstan and the search for organogenic structures in the axial zone of the Kama-Kinel system of troughs): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2008.
3. Larochkina I.A., New unique discoveries in Kamsko-Kinelskaya system of depressions in Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 30Ц33.
4. Nefedov N.V., Karpov V.B., Aref'ev Yu.M. et al., Geological structure features of Menzelinsky, Timerovsky and Olginsky fields of the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of their genetic nature (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2018, V. 20(2), pp. 88Ц101.
5. Neganov V.M., Seysmostratigraficheskiy analiz osadochnogo chekhla i kristallicheskogo fundamenta pri poiskakh novykh mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza po geologo-geofizicheskim dannym (Seismostratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary cover and crystalline basement in the search for new oil and gas fields based on geological and geophysical data): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Perm', 2011.
6. Lyadova N.A., Yakovlev Yu.A., Raspopov A.V., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo kraya (Geology and development of oil deposits of the Perm region), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, 335 p.
7. Larochkina I.A., Kontseptsiya sistemnogo geologicheskogo analiza pri poiskakh i razvedke mestorozhdeniy nefti na territorii Tatarstana (Concept of systematic geological analysis in prospecting and exploration of oil deposits in Tatarstan), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2013, 232 p.
8. Valeeva I.F., Anisimov G.A., Anisimova L.Z., Novikova S.P., Geological background of the further exploration of oil in the Nizhnekamsk deflection (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2016, V. 18, no. 3, Part 2, pp. 198Ц205.
9. Provorov V.M., Tektono-sedimentatsionnye osobennosti severnykh i zapadnykh rayonov Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Tectonic-sedimentation features of the northern and western regions of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Perm', 1994.
10. Provorov V.M., The structure of the Late Devonian-Tournaisian paleoshelf in the north of the Ural-Volga region and the tasks of its further study (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1988, no. 2, pp. 24Ц29.
11. Kulagin A.V., Mushin I.A., Pavlova T.Yu., Modelirovanie geologicheskikh protsessov pri interpretatsii geofizicheskikh dannykh (Modeling geological processes in the interpretation of geophysical data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1994, 250 p.
12. Vilesov A.P., Nemirovich T.G., Lashmanova A.A., Franskie odinochnye rify Orenburgskoy oblasti i perspektivy ikh neftegazonosnosti (Frasnian single banks of Orenburg region and the prospects for their oil and gas potential), Collected papers УOsadochnye basseyny, sedimentatsionnye i postsedimentatsionnye protsessy v geologicheskoy istoriiФ (Sedimentary basins, sedimentary and postsedimentary processes in geological history), Proceedings of VII All-Russian lithologic meeting, Novosibirsk: Publ. of INGG SO RAN, 2013, Part 1, pp. 158-163.13. Neudachin N.A., Khannanova G.R., Mirnov R.V. et al., Regularity of development organogenic buildups and location of petroleum deposits in the Upper Devonian-Tournaisian carbonate complex within the platform part of the Republic of Bashkortostan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 5, pp. 22Ц25, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-5-22-25
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The article is devoted to a problem of improving a reliability of detailed seismogeological models of hydrocarbon deposits at the assets of Rosneft Oil Company. The problem of predicting lithology between wells in three-dimensional geological models especially emerges in areas with a complex geological structure. Standard seismic interpretation tools are limited by a vertical seismic resolution which is an insufficient for geological modeling. In such situation stochastic seismic inversion can help to reduce a degree of uncertainty in predicting a lithological structure of oil and gas reservoirs. Stochastic seismic inversion is a process of building a volumetric reservoir model with a distribution of properties described by wells and calculated wave field based on them which is similar to real seismic data. At the same time, the built geological model has the same vertical resolution as log data. A distinguishing characteristic of the method is its multivariance: a result of stochastic inversion has a set of equally probable realizations of elastic properties, lithology and reservoir properties cubes. It makes possible to evaluate uncertainty of prediction.
The authors discuss the case studies of stochastic seismic inversion application in various geological objects of the fields of Rosneft: hard-to-recover reserves of oil of the Bazhen-Abalak complex on the Krasnoleninsky arch, deposits of the lower part of the Pokur suite of the Beregovoye field and the J2 formation of the Tyumen suites in the areas of the Tortasinsky block. The possibility of seismic data stochastic synchronous inversion was determined for structures of highly dissected, laterally sharply variable productive reservoirs. The advantages and limitations of the method are identified. Recommendations for the further development of the method were given. Special 3D seismic data interpretation techniques helping to get elastic and reservoir properties models of formations with complex geological structure which has the same vertical resolution as log data and similar to recorded seismic data. It made possible to solve the problems of clarifying the prospects for the oil and gas content of the target intervals.
1. Yakovlev I.V., Ampilov Yu.P., Filippova K.E., Almost everything about seismic inversion. Part 2 (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2011, no. 1, pp. 5Ц15.
2. Kudamanov A.I., Marinov V.A., Bumagina V.A. et al., Osnovnye zakonomernosti stroeniya i evolyutsiya osadkonakopleniya verkhney yury Krasnoleninskogo svoda Zapadnoy Sibiri (Basic regularities in the structure and evolution of sedimentation of the Upper Jurassic of the Krasnoleninsky arch of Western Siberia), Proceedings of TNNC, 2018, V. 4, pp. 111-129.
3. Agalakov S.E., Gayfulina E.F., Grishchenko M.A. et al., New directions of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon accumulations (In Russ.), Delovoy zhurnal NEFTEGAZ.RU, 2020, no. 7, pp. 58Ц64.
4. Helgesen J., Magnus I., Prosser S. et al., Comparison of constrained sparse spike and stochastic inversion for porosity prediction at Kristin Field, The Leading Edge, April 2000, pp. 400Ц408.
5. Pirogova A.S., Epov K.A., Geologically driven stochastic inversion of seismic data for reservoir characterization in Tyumen formation (In Russ.), SPE-202034-MS, 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/202034-MS.
6. Mukher A.G., Tugareva A.V., Paleogeograficheskie osobennosti stroeniya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti nizhne- i sredneyurskikh otlozheniy (Paleogeographic features of the structure and prospects of oil and gas content of the Lower and Middle Jurassic deposits) Proceedings of II scientific and practical conference УPuti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAOФ (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO): edited by Shpil'man V.I., Volkov V.A., Khanty-Mansiysk, 1999, pp. 123Ц133.7. Haas A., Dubrule O., Geostatistical inversion Ц a sequential method of stochastic reservoir modeling constrained by seismic data, First Break, 1994, V. 12, no. 11, pp. 561Ц569.
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The work is devoted to the study of changes in the acoustic properties of rocks of super-viscous oil deposits as a result of heating. The development of the studied field is carried out by the method of steam-gravity drainage, the essence of which lies in the injection of steam leading to the runoff of heated oil to the producing well. The coolant temperature during the development of the object under study is 150 ∞C. As a result of steam-gravity drainage, the temperature field of the developed formation and nearby rocks changes. There is a need to study the influence of the heating processes of rocks containing high-viscosity hydrocarbons in order to develop a technique for qualitative monitoring of the reservoir and predicting the effect of the coolant on the geological environment.
This article presents the results of laboratory researches of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks and cap rocks under the influence of temperature heating. The collection of core samples is represented by sandy rocks, Ђlinguloid claysї and Ђspiriferous limestoneї. In laboratory conditions, the heating of the samples ranged from 20 to 90Ц100 ∞C. The measurements of acoustic characteristics were carried out with a heating step of 10 ∞C. The obtained results illustrate a speed decrease of the longitudinal and transverse waves, the change in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio under the conditions of a uniformly increasing temperature. The approximation of the results to the coolant temperature was carried out according to the revealed law, based on the points of direct measurements. The results made it possible to establish the patterns of changes in petrophysical parameters, to identify the acoustic characteristics of rocks that are subject to the greatest changes in heating conditions, and to determine the magnitude of the change in the parameters under consideration.
1. Khisamov R.S., Musin M.M., Musin K.M., Obobshchenie rezul'tatov laboratornykh i opytno-promyshlennykh rabot po izvlecheniyu sverkhvyazkoy nefti iz plasta (Generalization of the results of laboratory and pilot-industrial work on the extraction of super-viscous oil from the reservoir), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2013, 232 p.
2. Sudakov V., Khasanov D., Stepanov A. et al., Downhole receiver based technology for geophysical monitoring of super-viscous oil deposits development by steam injection, SPE-193662-MS, 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/193662-MS.
3. Stepanov A.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Amerkhanov M.A. et al., Combined cost-effective seismic monitoring technology for a shallow heavy oil reservoir driven by SAGD, Proceedings of Geomodel 2018, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 2018, DOI:10.3997/2214-4609.201802393
4. Khasanov R.R., Mullakaev A.I., Dusmanov E.N., The structure of sandstones in productive horizons of the permian bituminous deposits of Tatarstan (Russia) (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye nauki, 2017, V. 159, no. 1, pp. 164Ц173.
5. Rabbani A., Ong O., Chen X. et al., Rock physics laboratory experiments on bitumen-saturated carbonates from the Grosmont Formation, Alberta, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2016, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2016, R. 3464Ц3467, DOI:10.1190/segam2016-13972165.1.
6. Wolf K., Laboratory measurements and reservoir monitoring of bitumen sand reservoirs, Stanford: Stanford University, 2010.
7. Mochinaga H., Onozuka S., Kono F. et al., Properties of oil sands and bitumen in Athabasca, The Canadian Society of Exploration Geologists CSPGЦCSEGЦCWLS Convention, 2006, pp. 39Ц44.
8. Yuan H., Han D., Zhang W., The effect of pressure and temperature on bitumen saturated carbonate, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2015, pp. 3151Ц3155, DOI:10.1190/segam2015-5907385.1
9. Mavko G., Mukerji T., Dvorkin J., The rock physics handbook, Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2020, 511 p.
10. Gorgun V.A., Utemov E.V., Kosarev V.E., The dispersion method for determining the interval velocity according to a multielement wave acoustic logging (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2011, no. 6 (42), pp. 44-47.
11. Yachmeneva E., Starovoytov A., Kosarev V., Investigation of elastic characteristics of bitumen core, Proceedings of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM, 2018, V. 18, no. 1.4, pp. 547Ц552, DOI: 10.5593/sgem2018/1.4/S06.071
12. Han D., Liu J., Batzle M., Acoustic property of heavy oil Ц Measured data, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2006, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2006, pp. 1903Ц1907, DOI: 10.1190/1.2369898
13. Nurgalieva N.G., Ikhsanov N.A., Nurgaliev D.K., Dautov A.N., Facial characteristics of the Ufimian bituminous sediments (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 72Ц75.
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The oil fields of Azerbaijan are mainly composed of poorly cemented and loose rocks. Most of these fields have already entered the final stage of development, characterized by a high water cut. At this stage of development, the problems associated with sand and water production of wells are exacerbated. In addition, though that relict (primary) hydrogen sulphide is not present in the composition of reservoir oil in Azerbaijan's fields, biogenic hydrogen sulphide (hydrogen sulphide of secondary origin) is observed in the production of many producing wells. It is also possible to contaminate a productive formation as a result of the gradual decomposition of a number of reagents (polymers and lignosulfonates) contained in process fluids (drilling fluids, killing fluids, etc.) by sulfate-reducing bacteria. As a result, in the process of oil production, serious complications arise associated with the high corrosiveness and toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. In this regard, there is a need for a more thorough study of hydrogen sulfide and identifying the degree of its destructive effect in the process of oil production. The greatest danger from the whole variety of corrosive formation fluids is hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. They cause intense corrosion damage to both downhole equipment and plugging stone, which is a barrier against sand and formation water. As a result of studies of the interaction of cement stone with hydrogen sulfide dissolved in formation water, it was found that during thermodynamic processes, the cements used do not provide a stable cement stone. The buffer layer inside the cement stone has a higher permeability and to a lesser extent prevents the transfer of aggressive substances into the depth of the cement stone and calcium hydrosulfate into the near-wellbore zone, which leads to intensive destruction of the stone. It is noted the need to continue the study of physicochemical factors affecting the rate of corrosion of cement stone in order to establish a quantitative relationship between the factors and determine methods for increasing the corrosion resistance of stone.
1. Feyzullaev A.A.O., About depth of diagenetic processes and lower boundary of biosphere in the South Caspian basin (In Russ.), Geofizicheskie protsessy i biosfera, 2020, V. 19, no. 2, pp. 57Ц73.
2. Agzamov F.A., Lomakina L.N., Khababutdinova N.B. et al., Cement stone corrosion processes affected by acidulous components of bedded fluids (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, V. 13, no. 4, pp. 10Ц28.
3. Agzamov F.A., Makhmutov A.N., Tokunova E.F. et al., Study of corrosion stability of a cement stone in magnesia aggressive environment (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2019, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 73Ц78.
4. Voronik A.M., Kamenskikh S.V., Sharov E.V., Research of corrosion resistance of a cement stone in the conditions of hydrogen sulfide aggression (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2017, no. 2, pp. 38Ц43.
5. Kamenskikh S.V., Lanina T.D., Sharov E.V., The analysis of grouting cements researches for conditions of hydrosulfuric aggression (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2016, no. 3, pp. 39Ц43.
6. Voronik A.M., Kamenskikh S.V., Ulyasheva N.M., Attachment of highly permeable rocks, containing aggressive fluids (In Russ.), Bulatovskie chteniya, 2020, V. 3, pp. 51Ц55.
7. Sozonov A.S., Sukhachev V.Y., Olennikova O.V. et al., First implementation of self-healing cement systems in H2S/CO2 aggressive environment across pay-zone (In Russ.), SPE-201842-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/201842-MS.
8. Wentworth Ch.C., Kramer J.F., A new high performance biguanide polyammonium - Based blend for control of microbiological fouling in oil and gas stimulation, Paper presented at the CORROSION, April 2021.
9. Kamenskih S., Ulyasheva N., Buslaev G. et al., Research and development of the lightweight corrosion-resistant cement blend for well cementing in complex geological conditions (In Russ.), SPE-191509-18RPTC-MS, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2118/191509-18RPTC-MS
10. Jafariesfad N., Sangesland S., Gawel K., Torsæter M., New materials and technologies for life-lasting cement sheath: A review of recent advances, SPE-199885-PA, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/199885-PA.
11. Jafariesfad N., Gong Y., Geiker M.R., Skalle P., Nano-sized MgO with engineered expansive property for oil well cement systems, SPE-180038-MS, 2016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/180038-MS12. Utkin D.A., Garshina O.V., Kudimov I.A., Okromelidze G.V., The cement slurry and technology of the cementing for environments abnormally high content of hydrogen sulfide, SPE-201840-MS, 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/201840-MS
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The results of previous studies of filtration in low-permeability reservoirs are presented in this article. The factors influencing the filtration characteristics are analyzed, such as capillary pressure and intermolecular interaction forces; presence of water and clay minerals in the reservoir; rock and fluid microstructure; change of stress state in rock. Particular attention is paid to the non-linear effects of filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. The deviation from the linear filtration law is associated with the presence of an initial pressure gradient. The article describes how to determine the initial pressure gradient. Experimental and theoretical versions of definitions of the lower limit of applicability of Darcy law are reviewed. The effect of deviation from Darcy law at the lower boundary on well performance and the effectiveness of well stimulation techniques are described. It is concluded that traditional field development methods, which are based on Darcy's law and the Laplace capillary pressure equation, require considerable adjustment in low-permeability reservoirs. The current criteria for classifying low permeability reservoirs do not meet the conditions for practical development, so variants of reservoir classification are given in the text. It was established that rocks with a gas permeability of less than 0.004 μm2 should be classified as reservoirs with a low filtration potential. A plan for creating a scientific and methodological base for predicting filtration properties in low-permeability reservoirs has been developed. This scientific and methodological base will make it possible to prepare draft amendments to regulatory documents. Creating favourable conditions for the development of reservoirs with permeability of less than 0.004 μm2 will increase recoverable oil reserves by 4 billion tons at developed and explored fields.
1. Baykov V.A., A.V. Kolonskikh, A.K. Makatrov et al., Nonlinear filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. Laboratory core examination for Priobskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO УNK УRosneft'Ф, 2013, no. 2, pp. 4Ц7.
2. Baykov V.A., Galeev R.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Makatrov A.K. et al., Nonlinear filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. Analisys and interpretation of laboratory core examination for Priobskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO УNK УRosneft'Ф, 2013, no. 2, pp. 8Ц12.
3. Prada A., Civan F., Modification of DarcyТs law for the threshold pressure gradient, J Petrol Sci Eng., 1999, no. 22 (4), pp. 37Ц40.
4. Dudareva O.V., Osobennosti fil'tratsii v nizkopronitsaemykh kollektorakh (Features of filtration in low-permeability reservoirs:): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical science, Ufa, 2016, 119 p.
5. Grachev S.I., Korotenko V.A., Kushakova N.P. et al., Liquid filtration in anomalous collectors (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2019, V. 330, no. 7, pp. 104Ц113.
6. Shpurov I.V., Tudvachev A.V., Justification of the boundary values of permeability reservoirs in their differentiation into classes with high and low filtration potential (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 73Ц77.
7. Shpurov I.V., Methodology of geological and technological model of low-productivity sediments J1 of Nizhnevartovsk region (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal' = Oil&Gas Vertical, 2010, Special issue "ZapSibNIIGG - 35 yearФ, pp. 52Ц61.
8. Wang X., Sheng J.J., Effect of low-velocity non-Darcy flow on well production performance in shale and tight oil reservoirs, Fuel, 2017, V. 190, pp. 41Ц46.
9. Kundu P., Kumar V., Mishra I.M., Experimental and numerical investigation of fluid flow hydrodynamics in porous media: Characterization of Darcy and non-Darcy flow regimes, Powder Technology, 2016, 51 p.
10. Shagapov V.Sh., Dudareva O.V., Manifestation of nonlinear filtration effects in low permeablimitility reservoirs at variable modes of well functioning (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, no. 1 (39), pp. 102Ц114.
11. Ran X., Li A., Zhao J., Li S., Classification and evaluation of ultra-low permeability reservoirs in the Changqing oilfield, Proceedings of IPTC 2013: International Petroleum Technology Conference, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609-pdb.350.iptc16603
12. Xu J., Jiang R., Xie L. et al., Non-Darcy flow numerical simulation for lowЦpermeability reservoirs, SPE 154890, 2014, DOI:10.2118/171174-MS
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The last stage of mature oil fields development leads to necessity of exploration and extraction of oil from formations with complex geology. One of such objects is the Tyumen suite. It is represented by Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in transgressional stage of sedimentary sheath development, when continental and deltaic depositional environment interchanges occurred. These deposits are characterized by low reservoir permeability and porosity and both lateral and vertical heterogeneity of sand bodies, which is primarily, associated with the generation and accumulation conditions.
This paper covers the complex analysis of geomechanical properties, estimation of drilling risks and defines development plan for Tyumen suite deposits of X field. The key issues are drilling problems associated with drilling horizontal wells parallel to regional stress, for example, sidewall sticking, tight pull, inability of casing landing due to the wellbore collapse, and problems during hydraulic fracturing. That facts lead to re-drilling horizontal wells and significant increasing drilling cost. It should be noted that actual and planned starting characteristics for each horizontal well were not confirmed, also actual ratio of liquid rate of the horizontal well to liquid rate of the directional well was only 1,3 (planned ratio was 2,3). Calibrated geomechanical model helped to assess drilling problems and optimize drilling schedule.
1. Rykus M.V., Suleymanov D.D., Sedimentological control of the terrigenous reservoir rocks properties of the Tyumen suite in the west of Ob region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 80Ц85, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-8-80-85
2. Rykus M.V., Rykus N.G., Sedimentologiya terrigennykh rezervuarov uglevodorodov (Sedimentology of terrigenous hydrocarbons reservoirs), Ufa: Mir pechati Publ., 2014, 324 p.
3. Fjaer E., Holt R.M., Horsrud P. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elsevier, 2008, 491 p.
4. Zobak M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 449 r.5. Latypov I.D., Islamov R.A., Suleymanov D.D., Geomechanical study of the Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO УNK УRosneft'Ф, 2013, no. 2, pp. 20Ц24.
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The one of the main goals of oil and gas companies is to maintain oil production levels at long-term exploited fields and fields, which are in the final stage of its development. Generally, the drilling of sidetracks and horizontal wells becomes the primary means of well productivity increasing on highly flooded and marginal fields. The knowledge of the field geological structure and its current oil reserves distribution allows to plan effectively the horizontal wells borehole trajectories. The geological and hydrodynamic models become the main means for recoverable oil reserves localization. Reliable filtration models can be used to identify the most effective zones with profitable oil reserves.
The solutions, considered in this paper, are directed to refine the location of sand bodies with high-density mobile oil reserves in three-dimensional space of hydrodynamic models. We can modify the map of oil reserves density by using that information about sand bodies and use it to plan the horizontal well placement. In addition, the paper discusses the method for waterflooding factor calculation, based on Buckley Ц Leverett equation. The methods, described in the work, allow to increase the cumulative oil production for the field, which is in the final stage of its development.
1. Golovchenko E.N., Dorofeeva E.Yu., Microdomain graph partition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Aerokosmicheskaya tekhnika = PNRPU Aerospace Engineering Bulletin, 2014, no. 39, pp. 35Ц49.
2. Pollock D.W., Semi-analytical computation of path lines for finite-difference models, Ground Water, 1988, V. 26(6), pp. 743Ц750.
3. Khodanovich D.A., Sokhoshko S.K., Solution of the Backley - Leverett one-dimensional task of displacement to determine water-flooding factor of heterogeneous collectors (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 5, pp. 10Ц14.
4. Khodanovich D.A., Bakhtiy N.S., Analiz i optimizatsiya gidrodinamicheskikh modeley OAO УSurgutneftegazФ dlya operativnogo planirovaniya geologo-tekhnicheskikh meropriyatiy (Analysis and optimization of hydrodynamic models of Surgutneftegas for operational planning of geological and technical measures), Proceedings of Scientific and practical conference УAktual'nye problemy neftegazovoy otrasliФ (Actual problems of the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2017, pp. 56Ц64.
5. Grachev S.I., Strekalov A.V., Samoylov A.S., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy gorizontal'nymi skvazhinami (Improving the efficiency of oil field development with horizontal wells), Tyumen': Publ. of TIU, 2016, 204 p.
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The article is devoted to the selection and application of flow redirecting technologies at the development sites of the Vankorskoye field by RN-Vankor LLC.
The first part of the article discusses the possibility of planning and applying enhanced oil recovery methods, and also analyzes the criteria for the applicability of these EOR in the conditions of the Vankorskoye field. The issues of the choice of flow redirecting technologies and their improvement are considered, taking into account a number of features, such as large compartmentalization, high permeability and permeability heterogeneity of reservoirs, as well as the development of a network of horizontal and directional wells. Shown are the results of laboratory development and pilot testing of technology based on three-dimensionally crosslinked partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymers. Watering routes for production wells have been established. Based on the results of laboratory tests, the processing design was selected, which includes recipes for the preparation of rims and the processing sequence. Taking into account the experience of the live application of gel polymer compositions in the Vankorskoye field, the well treatment design has been improved. The technique of selection of candidate wells by the method of parametric ranking of waterflooding elements is described. The data on technological efficiency from the impact on injection wells, as well as data on the number of treatments and coverage of the fund in the implementation of the program for the use of flow diverting technologies are presented. The periods of the first tests in 2016, replication in 2017 at the Yak-3-7 deposit of the Vankorskoye field are considered.
1. Ismagilov T.A., Ganiev I.M., Sorokin A.V. et al., Effective use of gel-polymer compositions in horizontal wells of the Vankorskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 117Ц121, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2017-12-117-121
2. Zakharyan A.G., Musin R.M., Cimic M. et al., Systematic approach to the application of chemical EOR in JSC УRosneftФ, SPE-176727-RU, 2015, DOI:10.2118/176727-MS
3. Ismagilov T.A., Application of water control technologies, considering the mechanisms of injected water breakthrough (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 56Ц59.
4. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Telin A.G., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya. Regulirovanie fil'tratsionnykh potokov vodoizoliruyushchimi tekhnologiyami pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Regulation of filtration flows by waterproofing technologies in the development of oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2010, 225 p.
5. Zemtsov Yu.V., Lytkin A.E., Algorithm of stage-wise analysis and results of chemical eor procedure application (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2018, no. 7, pp. 48Ц52.
6. Gazizov A.A., Uvelichenie nefteotdachi neodnorodnykh plastov na pozdney stadii razrabotki (Enhanced oil recovery of heterogeneous reservoirs at a late stage of field development), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2002, 639 p.
7. Shandrygin A.N., Lutfullin A., Main trends in the development of enhanced reservoir coverage by stimulation in Russia (In Russ.), SPE-117410-RU, 2008, DOI:10.2118/117410-MS
8. Ganiev I.M., Yakovlev K.V., Belykh A.M., Ismagilov T.A., On specifics of using flow redirection technologies at late stages of fractured carbonate reservoirs development (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 3, pp. 51Ц60.
9. Belykh A.M., Perevoshchikov D.O., Ganiev I.M., Ismagilov T.A., Innovative approach to the application of physicochemical enhanced oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs of Udmurtneft OJSC fields (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2018, no. 6, pp. 36Ц50.10. Belykh A.M., Perevoshchikov D.O., Ganiev I.M., Ismagilov T.A., Improvement of flow diverting technologies based on polymer systems for carbonate reservoirs of Udmurtneft (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2016, no. 7, pp. 22Ц27.
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The operation of oil and gas fields in the late stages of development is characterized by a high water cut of the well production. Under these conditions, one of the important tasks is to predict the gas factor and total production volume of associated petroleum gas (APG), taking into account its dissolution in formation water. In this regard, the authors proposed methodological approaches for predicting the volume of production of APG, taking into account gas, both dissolved in oil and gas, and dissolved in formation saline water. A method of phase transformations of formation fluids is proposed, which allows, under given temperature and pressure formation conditions and separation conditions, to estimate the increase in gas content of well fluid and the volume of methane released from 1 m3 of formation saline water under temperature and pressure conditions of separation of well fluids. Phase transformations of formation fluids were modeled on the basis of the Cubic Plus Association type equation of state modified by the authors, which takes into account the effects of association of polar mixture molecules. For the convenience of performing practical calculations, algorithms have been developed that are implemented in software. The technique is approved in two subsidiary of the Rosneft Oil Company on 18 subjects to development of oil fields in Western Siberia and showed good convergence with actual data of operation of objects. Application of a technique allowed to increase the forecasting accuracy of extraction of APG in 2020 on average by 60%. These results promote strategy implementation of the Rosneft Oil Company on carbon management till 2035 on the basis of advance planning of development of the petrochemical and power direction of rational use of APG.
2. Rosneft Presents Its Environmental Development Concept, URL: https://www.rosneft.com/press/news/item/205199/
3. Gulyat'eva N.A., Bobrov E.V., Influence of water-dissolved gas on development parameters of hydrocarbons deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 4, pp. 52Ц54, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-04-52-54
4. Fominykh O.V., Nauchno-metodicheskoe obosnovanie ucheta fazovykh ravnovesiy pri proektirovanii razrabotki i ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Scientific and methodological substantiation of accounting for phase equilibria in the design of the development and operation of hydrocarbon fields): thesis of doctor of technical science, Tyumen, 2020.
5. Ahmed T., Equations of state and PVT analysis applications for improved reservoir modeling, Oxford: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2016, 614 p.
6. Bahadori A., Fluid phase behavior for conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, Oxford: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2017, 545 p.
7. El-Banbi A., Alzahabi A., El-Maraghi A., PVT property correlations selection and estimation, Oxford: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2018, 412 p.
8. Pinga G., Hanmina T., Zhouhuaa W., Qianb W., Calculation of thermodynamic properties of water by the CPA equation of state, Natural Gas Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 305Ц310.
9. Huang X., Li Q., Qi Z. et al., Prediction model of water-soluble gas content in a high-pressure and high-temperature water-soluble gas reservoir, Applied Geochemistry, 2020, V. 124(4), DOI:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2020.104855.
10. Pokharel S., Aryal N., Niraula B.R. et al., Transport properties of Methane, Ethane, Propane, and n-Butane in water, Journal of Physics Communications, 2018, V. 2, no. 6, DOI:10.1088/2399-6528/aabc45
11. Kampbell D.H., Vandergrift S.A., Analysis of dissolved methane, ethane, and ethylene in ground water by a standard gas chromatographic technique, Journal of Chromatographic Science, 1998, V. 36, pp. 253Ц256.
12. Masoodiyeh F., Mozdianfard M.R., Karimi-Sabet J., Thermodynamic modeling of PVTx properties for several water/hydrocarbon systems in near-critical and supercritical conditions, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2013, V. 30(1), pp. 201Ц212.
13. Hajiw M., Chapoy A., Coquelet C., Hydrocarbons-water phase equilibria using the CPA equation of state with a group contribution method, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, V. 93, pp. 432Ц442.
14. Khalfin R.S., Mikhaylov V.G., Thermodynamical conditions of methane hydrate formation during field transportation of associated petroleum gas (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2019, no. 11, pp. 54Ц63.
15. Khalfin R.S., Modernizatsiya izvestnoy metodiki po prognozirovaniyu dobychi poputnogo neftyanogo gaza na nekotorykh mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Modernization of the well-known methodology for predicting the production of associated petroleum gas in some fields in Western Siberia), Proceedings of УMatematicheskoe modelirovanie i komp'yuternye tekhnologii v protsessakh razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gazaФ (Mathematical modeling and computer technologies in the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow, April, 14Ц15, 2021, p. 51.
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Today one of the main competitive advantages in oil and gas industry is high-quality processing and analysis of large amounts of data for the subsequent tasks of production scheduling, aggregator loading, nominal production and well repair works. The use of machine learning methods is a relevant and a promising direction. However, one of the challenges is the impossibility of solving engineering problems using only machine learning algorithms or only physical and mathematical models. Using only one of the approaches is either more labor-intensive or allows for the possibility of non-physical solutions and high error values.
The paper presents new approaches for analyzing high-frequency data on the example of solving various problems of petroleum engineering. The proposed hybrid algorithms for data analysis, based on the use of statistical data processing and machine learning methods in conjunction with traditional hydraulic calculations, make it possible to significantly increase the value of incoming information by identifying and responding to problems in a timely manner, thereby improving field development efficiency without conducting additional studies. Algorithms allow indirect data, without direct flow measurements, to identify deviations from the planned mode of operation and errors in the operations of the metering infrastructure. The algorithms have been tested at Urals-Volga region. Effects have been obtained by the prevention of technological problems at wells, optimization of periodic short-term activation of ESP mode of artificial lifted wells, and automatic detection of problems in metering stations.
1. Volkov N.A., Dakhova E.Yu., Verification of field data and forecast model based on variational autoencoder in the application to the mechanized fund,
SPE-201936-MS, 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/201936-MS.
2. Yudin E.V., Khabibullin R.A., Galyautdinov I.M. et al., Modeling of a gas-lift well operation with an automated gas-lift gas supply control system (In Russ.),SPE-196816-MS, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/196816-MS.
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The article examines the issues of predicting the accumulated performance indicators for horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. These wells penetrate the Bazhenov formation in the Palyanovskaya area of the Krasnoleninskoye field. This form has very low reservoir properties (permeability of the order of 0.001⋅10-3 μm2), according to the estimates obtained by specialists. This fact creates a number of difficulties in the operation of wells and in the modeling of the drainage processes of the target object and the calculation of forecasts.
The work carried out a comprehensive analysis of the accumulated data on well productivity indicators, technological indicators (features of construction and stimulation of wells) and geological indicators (geomechanical indicators of the target object). The current status of the development of the Palyanovskaya area of the Krasnoleninskoye field determines the type of task as data analysis on small samples. As a result of the analysis, statistical models were built to quantify performance indicators from the data. These data characterize the features of well construction and stimulation. This paper presents a methodology for preparing the initial data for analysis, selection of assessment tools and assessment of the significativity of the found dependencies. Finally, a probabilistic forecast of production rates for new wells was performed based on the constructed statistical models. The calculated forecast confirmed the choice of the direction of technological improvement of design. Cluster analysis of production indicators, correlation analysis of production indicators and technological indicators, analysis of regression models of production indicators and Monte Carlo sampling are used to build a forecast. The calculated indicators demonstrate a multiple increase of productivity compared to the average statistical indicators of previously drilled wells.
1. Plavinskiy S.L., Rabota s malymi vyborkami. Statisticheskiy analiz dannykh s propushchennymi nablyudeniyami (Working with small samples. Statistical analysis of missing observations), URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YeYs6GfNv-0
2. Dealing with very small datasets, URL: https://www.kaggle.com/rafjaa/dealing-with-very-small-datasets
3. Choosing the right estimator, URL: https://scikit-learn.org/stable/tutorial/machine_learning_map/index.html
4. Kobzar' A.I., Prikladnaya matematicheskaya statistika. Dlya inzhenerov i nauchnykh rabotnikov (Applied mathematical statistics. For engineers and scientists), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2012, 813 p.
5. Lapach S.N., Radchenko S.G., Regression analysis in conditions of heterogeneity of factor space (In Russ.), Matematichn≥ mashini ≥ sistemi, 2016, no. 3, pp. 55Ц63.
6. Zubkov A.F., Derkachenko V.N., Barmin M.A., Cluster and discriminant analysis of regional insurance markets (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskie vedomosti Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Informatika. Telekommunikatsii. Upravlenie, 2012, no. 1(140), pp. 113-118.
7. Sivogolovko E.V., Methods for assessing the quality of clear clustering (In Russ.), Komp'yuternye instrumenty v obrazovanii, 2011, no. 4, pp. 14-31.
8. Kim J.-O., Mueller C.W., Klekka W.R. et al., Faktornyy diskriminantnyy i klasternyy analiz (Factor, discriminant, and cluster analysis) [Russian translation], Moscow: Finansy i Statistika Publ., 1989, 215 p.
9. Tarantola A., Inverse problem theory and methods for model parameter estimation, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2005, 352 r., https://doi.org/10.1137/1.9780898717921
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Integrated modeling is a tool for managing hydrocarbon extraction process from a production facility which consisting of both subsurface and surface elements. The main purpose of the work is to optimize the operation of the infrastructure and plan procedures by using the integrated model of the Cenomanian reservoir. The present article is concerned with the stages of development an integrated model of a gas field of the Cenomanian reservoir of one of the fields in the Tyumen region, setting the elements, which include: 3D-hydrodynamic model, well models and a surface infrastructure model. The software package Petroleum Experts (Prosper, Gap, Resolve) is used. The hydrodynamic model and well models were adapted to the results of well test for correct integration. The stages of constructing the elements of the network, as well as specifying the compressor models by using gas-dynamic characteristics, are considered. The article analyzes the predicted technological parameters of the gas field operation according to the basic option, on the basis of which optimization approaches to the development of the Cenomanian gas field are formed Ц the use of reserve compression capacities, the construction of additional pipelines. The authors have proposed an additional algorithm to regulate the forecast calculation of gas production. The input data for the algorithm are the maximum gas production at the PK1 deposit and technological constraints for wells Ц the maximum and minimum gas production rate, the maximum drawdown. The program controls wells by selecting choke diameters to maximize gas production. In conclusion, a technical and economic estimation of the basic and alternative options was carried out, based on the results of which the most rational option for the development of the PK1 formation was determined.
1. Bekirov T.M., Shatalov A.T., Sbor i podgotovka k transportu prirodnykh gazov (Collection and preparation for transportation of natural gases), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 856 p.
2. Kostyuchenko S.V., Kudryashov S.V., Vorob'ev P.V., Integrated models to design coordinated oil production and gathering systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 11, pp. 100Ц103.
3. Markman P.G., Korkin R.V., Optimizatsiya truboprovodnykh sistem (Optimization of piping systems), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2005, 126 p.4. Men'shikov S.N., Varyagov S.A., Kharitonov A.N., Kiselev M.N., Use of integrated modeling systems to justify the technological mode of a gas field operation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 22, pp. 64Ц69.
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The article presents the concept of a digital hydrodynamic and geophysical well test service developed on the basis of the RosneftТs corporate product RN-KIN. The service allows the main participants of the platform to interact in one information space, providing mutually beneficial conditions for each side. For all participants, specialized automated workstations of the Customer and the Contractor have been developed. The service for the Customer includes a set of functions for the selection of candidates for research, the formation of an application for hydrodynamic and geophysical well testing, monitoring of the study and acceptance of materials from a service contractor, technical and expert quality control of the hydrodynamic and geophysical well testing. The main benefits are achieved due to the instant receipt of materials to the Customer in digital form and in the required volume for prompt decision-making, as well as monitoring the stages of research. The Contractor's service includes a set of functions for the dispatching and control-interpretation services for the design and transfer of materials based on the results of the study carried out according to the Company's standards. The advantages of using the service for the contractor are the prevention of technological risks during work on the well due to complete and reliable information about the well before the survey. The created technology guarantees the prompt and full receipt of the results of the research into the corporate database. The filling and correctness of the information is ensured for the purpose of in-depth analysis of the well test results.
1. Asalkhuzina G.F., Bikkinina A.G., Davletbaev A.Ya., Kostrigin I.V., Implementation of well test business processes automation in RN-KIN software by the example of RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 94-98, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-94-98
2. Baykov V.A., Rabtsevich S.A., Kostrigin I.V., Sergeychev A.V., Monitoring of field development using a hierarchy of models in software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik УNK УRosneftʹФ, 2014, no. 2, pp. 14 Ц17.
3. Kostrigin E.V., Davletbaev A.Ya., Abdullin R.I., Nazargalin E.R., Well tests and oil field tests (from planning to monitoring and visualization) (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik УNK УRosneftʹФ, 2014, no. 2, pp. 18Ц21.4. Kostrigin I.V., Zagurenko T.G., Khatmullin I.F., History of the creation and deploying of software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO УNK УRosneft'Ф, 2014, no. 2, pp. 4Ц7.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPM|
This publication presents a study of the possibility of using aerial photography equipment DJI P4 Multispectral, a feature of which is the presence of a multispectral camera, in the field of recognizing the species composition of the forest stand and obtaining data for determining the inventory indicators, as an integral part of forest management and forest inventory operations. This work is part of a research project aimed at developing a proprietary forest inventory methodology using airborne laser scanning data (LiDAR) and digital aerial photography, developed in the interests of Rosneft. Within the framework of the study, the following tasks were set: a) check the possibility of using the data of the DJI Phantom 4 Multispectral drone to identify trees, determine their heights, as well as classify forest elements by species composition; b) reveal the optical features of the DJI Phantom 4 Multispectral drone; c) determine the reliability and accuracy of fixing the heights of wood vegetation using aerial photography and airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) methods. An overview of the used equipment, the fieldwork process, and the algorithms applied during the data processing is provided. The results obtained from the use of aerial survey materials for automated decoding of tree species presented are analysed. The reliability and determination of the accuracy of fixing the heights of tree vegetation by aerial photography and airborne laser scanning verified, and the applicability of laser scanning data for topography problems assessed. Conclusions drawn about the prospects of using multispectral data and a photogrammetric point cloud for determining tree heights, segmentation of tree crowns and classification of species. In addition, the conclusion made about the possibility of using LiDAR data in the field of topography. A general conclusion is made on the applicability of using the DJI P4 Multispectral complex when performing forest inventory at Rosneft facilities and developing new methods for obtaining data for determining forest inventory indicators.
1. Cici A., Korstjens A.H., Hill R.A., Influence of micro-topography and crown characteristics on tree height estimations in tropical forests based on LiDAR canopy height models, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 2018, V. 65, pp. 105Ц113, DOI:10.1016/j.jag.2017.10.009
2. Jaakkola A., Hyyppä J., Yu X. et al., Autonomous collection of forest field reference Ц the outlook and a first step with UAV laser scanning, Remote Sensing, 2017, no. 9 (8), DOI:10.3390/rs9080785
3. Gambella F., Sistu L., Piccirilli D. et al., Forest and UAV: A bibliometric review, Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 2016, V. 9, no. 28, pp. 1359Ц1370.
4. Dainelli R., Toscano P., Gennaro S.F.D., Matese A., Recent advances in unmanned aerial vehicles forest remote sensing - A systematic review, Part II: Research applications, Forests, 2021, no. 12(4), DOI:10.3390/f12040397
5. Lu H., Fan T., Ghimire P., Deng L., Experimental evaluation and consistency comparison of UAV multispectral minisensors, Remote Sensing, 2020, no. 12 (16), DOI:10.3390/rs12162542
6. Reidelstürz P., Drauschke M., Bartelsen J., Towards UAV-based forest monitoring, Proceedings of the Workshop on UAV-based Remote Sensing Methods for Monitoring Vegetation, University of Cologne, Germany, September 9th-10th 2013. Geographisches Institut zu Köln, Kölner Geographische Arbeiten, Band 94, pp. 21-32, DOI:10.5880/TR32DB.KGA94.5
7. Sarabia R., Aquino A., Ponce J.M. et al., Automated identification of crop tree crowns from uav multispectral imagery by means of morphological image analysis, Remote Sensing, 2020, V. 12, no. 48, DOI:10.3390/rs12050748
8. Adhikari A., Kumar M., Raghavendra S., An integrated object and machine learning approach for tree canopy extraction from UAV datasets, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 2021, Jan. 1, DOI:10.1007/s12524-020-01240-2
9. Onishi M., Ise T., Explainable identification and mapping of trees using UAV RGB image and deep learning, Scientific Reports, 2021, V. 11(1), DOI:10.1038/s41598-020-79653-9
10. Zawawi A.A., Shiba M., Jemali N., Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan, Forest Systems, 2015, no. 24(1), pp. 1Ц11.
11. Fernandes M.R., Aguiar F.C., Martins M.J. et al., Carbon stock estimations in a Mediterranean riparian forest: A case study combining field data and UAV imagery, Forests, 2020, no. 11(4), https://doi.org/10.3390/f1104037612. Shumeyko S.A., Filin N.N., The use of non-professional unmanned aerial vehicle system for the tasks of engineering geodesy and mapping oil and gas fields territory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 10, pp. 42Ц45, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-42-45
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
The results of the substantiation and field testing of the technology of field instrumental quality control of reagents in the article are contained. The list of substances and components included in the composition of oilfield reagents was determined using open sources of information. The component composition is the basis for the choice of spectral analysis methods and instrumental control technology that fill the main classes and the list of oilfield reagents. The experiment confirmed that infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy most fully satisfy the conditions, objects and goals of operational control of reagents for production technologies. Laboratory research and field tests have confirmed that IR and Raman spectroscopy methods quantitatively distinguish various brands of oilfield reagents, determine the brand (reagent identification) and authenticity (reagent verification), are suitable for oilfield conditions. This technology provides the ability to record and digitize the composition of an oilfield reagent at each stage of its life cycle Уlaboratory testing Ц field testing Ц field applicationФ. The technology and the digitized IR and Raman spectra allow for a quantitative comparison of the composition and quality of laboratory and field samples of reagents without limitations in terms of storage time, location of laboratory studies and field use. The prospect for the development of technology and method is a) the introduction into the field practice of a digital database IR- and Raman spectra (spectral identifier) of reagents; b) inclusion in reports at the stages Уlaboratory research Ц field trials Ц commercial applicationФ; c) the use of IR and Raman spectrometry for the examination of the quality of reagents during field commercial use.
1 Gilaev G.G., Gorbunov V.V., Kuznetsov A.M. et al., Increasing the efficiency of chemicals in Rosneft oil company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 22Ц24.
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The results of the influence of water content and temperature on the values of their viscosity-temperature characteristics, the amount of wax deposit and the effectiveness of the inhibitory additive are presented in this paper. An increase in temperature of emulsion formation and water content in emulsion leads to the formation of a temperature-viscous structure, which causes an increase in temperature, dynamic viscosity, energy of a viscous transition and a shift of phase transitions to a higher temperature region. The amount of wax deposit in the emulsion increases with increasing temperature of emulsion formation: the minimum amount of wax deposit at an emulsion formation temperature of 10∞C, and maximum - at a temperature of 40Ц60∞C. The degree of inhibition of additives slightly increases with the temperature of formation of emulsions. The maximum inhibitory ability of the additive is manifested in emulsions with a formation temperature of 20Ц40∞C with water content of 10%wt. With an increase in the temperature of formation of emulsions, the pour point of the samples significantly increases. The depressant effect of the additive decreases when water content in emulsions increase. The maximum depressant effect is characteristic of emulsion samples with a formation temperature of 10Ц20∞C and an water content of 10, 30%wt.
1. Tumanyan B.P., Nauchnye i prikladnye aspekty teorii neftyanykh dispersnykh sistem (Scientific and applied aspects of the theory of oil dispersed systems), Moscow: of Tekhnika Publ., 2000, 336 p.
2. Ibragimov N.G. et al., Oslozhneniya v neftedobyche (Complications in oil production): edited by Ibragimov N.G., Ishemguzhin E.I., Ufa : Monografiya Publ., 2003, 301 p.
3. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO УVNIIOENGФ, 2005, 324 p.
4. Moriceau G., Lester D. et al., Well-defined alkyl functional poly(sterene-co-maleic anhydride) architectures as pour point and viscosity modifiers for lubricating oil, Energy&Fuels, 2019, V. 33(8), pp. 7257Ц7264.
5. Kazantsev O.A., Volkova G.I., Prozorova I.V. et al., Poly(alkyl(meth)acrylate) depressants for paraffin oils, Petroleum Chemistry, 2016, no. 56, pp. 68Ц72.
6. Terteryan R.A., Depressornye prisadki k neftyam, toplivam i maslam (Depressant additives to crude oil, fuels and oils), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1990, 234 p.
7. Agaev S.G., Zemlyanskiy E.O., Grebnev A.N., Khalin A.N., O mekhanizme deystviya ingibitorov parafinovykh otlozheniy (On the mechanism of action of paraffin wax inhibitors), Proceedings of all-Russian scientific and technical conference УNeft' i gaz Zapadnoy SibiriФ (Oil and gas of Western Siberia), Part 1, 2007, pp. 219Ц222.
8. Evdokimov I.N., Losev A.P., Petroleum nanotechnologies - overcoming stereotypes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 8, pp. 12Ц15
9. Evdokimov I.N., Eliseev N.Yu., Influence of asphaltenes on the thermal properties of oil and bitumen emulsions (In Russ.), Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel, 2002, no. 6, pp. 26Ц29.
10. Vygovskoy V.P., Daneker V.A., Rikkonen S.V., Teplov A.I., Energetika gidromekhanicheskogo razrusheniya struktury vysokoparafinistykh neftey (Energy of hydromechanical destruction of the structure of highly paraffinic oils), Collected papers УAvtomatizatsiya i informatsionnoe obespechenie tekhnologicheskikh protsessov v neftyanoy promyshlennostiФ (Automation and information support of technological processes in the oil industry), Proceedings of NPF Geofit VNK: edited by Khor'kov A.K., 2002, V. 2, pp. 224Ц229.
11. Loskutova Yu.V. et al., Raschet energeticheskikh parametrov gidromekhanicheskogo razrusheniya struktury neftey (Calculation of energy parameters of hydromechanical destruction of the structure of oils), Collected papers УProblemy khimii nefti i gazaФ (Problems of chemistry of oil and gas), Tomsk: Publ. of IAO SB RAS, 2004, pp. 235Ц237.
12. Litvinets I.V., Prozorova I.V., Yudina N.V. et al., Effect of ammonium-containing polyalkylacrylate on the rheological properties of crude oils with different ratio of resins and waxes, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 146, pp. 96Ц102.13. Zhang Y., Gong J., Ren Y., Wang P., Effect of emulsion characteristics on wax deposition from water-in-waxy crude oil emulsions under static cooling conditions, Energy & Fuels, 2010, V. 24, pp. 1146Ц1155.
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Interpretation of well testing on unsteady state is based on the idealized case of a single well operating at a constant rate. However, in practice, the flow rate is not constant, in particular due to the difficulty of maintaining a constant rate. If do not take into account the changes in the flow rate before the research, this will cause inaccuracies in the calculations and errors in the analysis of the well test results. Traditionally, the transition from modeling the well production process with a constant flow rate to modeling with variable rates is carried out using the principle of superposition over time. The algorithm for calculating pressure using the superposition principle has a linear complexity, where the most resource-intensive element is the calculation of the differential pressure function. In addition, the calculation can take considerable time when calculating a complex analytical model Сwell Ц reservoir Ц boundaryТ for cases of well production history with tens and hundreds rates. Such cases make these calculations unsuitable for engineering practice.
The method is proposed to speed up of a bottomhole well flowing pressure calculation with variable rates according to the production history in this paper. The proposed method is based on the use of the pressure drop approximation function, which is a fourth-order polynomial of the logarithm of time. The coefficients of the polynomial are found by using the Levenberg Ц Marquardt optimization method. The comparative analysis of speed and quality of bottomhole well flowing pressure calculation for three models is given by the number of analytical model function calls, the calculation time, the maximum relative deviation, the average quadratic deviation of the relative error. It is shown that the calculated pressure values obtained by the traditional and proposed method (using an approximating polynomial function) for models of a vertical well, a horizontal well and a horizontal well with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in an infinite homogeneous reservoir are identical. The proposed method allows to significantly increase the calculation speed with minimal calculation error.
1. Walker A.C., Estimating reservoir pressure using the principle of superposition, SPE-2324-MS, 1968, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/2324-MS
2. Cinco-Ley H., Samaniego F., Use and misuse of the superposition time function in well test analysis, SPE-19817-MS, 1989, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/19817-MS
3. Earlougher R.C.Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series, 1977, V. 5, 264 p.
4. Stewart G., Well test design and analysis, PennWell Corp., 2011, pp. 52Ц82.
5. Van Everdingen A.F., Hurst W., The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoir, AIME, 1949, V. 186, pp. 305Ц324.
6. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous materials, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1961, pp. 108Ц123.
7. Roweis S., Levenberg-Marquardt optimization, URL: https://cs.nyu.edu/~roweis/
8. Ozkan E., Raghavan R., New solutions for well-test analysis problems, Parts 1 & 2, SPE-28424-MS, 1991, DOI:10.2118/28424-MS
9. Yao Shanshan, Wang Xiangzeng, Li Min, Ju Ning, A composite model for multi-stage fractured horizontal wells in heterogeneous reservoirs, SPE-182016-MS, 2016, DOI: 10.2118/182016-MS
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
Today, all areas of production are undergoing a full-scale transition to a new development paradigm, which includes the introduction of new technologies and the intellectualization of production. The first place goes to the production technologies that include automation, digital design, computer modeling, optimization of technological processes, the development of digital twins, and the use of new materials, robotic systems and artificial intelligence methods. Analysis of existing production systems shows that traditional methods cannot promptly and effectively solve existing problems and ensure the competitiveness of an enterprise. The issues of technical re-equipment of production (in particular workshops for tubing repair) and optimization of repair technological processes are becoming relevant. Equipment in such workshops should correspond to the current trends, provide a full cycle of repair and recovery of tubing with an increase in their service life. The introduction of these requirements will reduce the labor intensity of work on the technological preparation of production, will make it possible to find optimal production solutions to perform any types of work, including the technical re-equipment of production.
Approaches for industrial automation and robotization of technological processes for tubing repair are considered in this article. The analysis of the production system has been carried out. It was found that the existing repair shops are characterized by an insufficient level of automation of technological processes (less than 20%); complex production logistics; significant potential for the introduction of new equipment and reconstruction. It is shown that manual production can be replaced with robotic one. Such a replacement will make it possible to increase the productivity and quality of the work performed.
1. Sen'kin A.S., Kraevskiy N.N., Il'in K.O., Munasypov R.A., To the question of robotization and automation technologies development in well servicing and workover (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 3, pp. 61Ц68, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2020-3-61-68.
2. Selivanov S.G., Ivanova M.V., Teoreticheskie osnovy rekonstruktsii mashinostroitel'nogo proizvodstva (Theoretical foundations of the reconstruction of machine-building production), Ufa: Gilem Publ., 2001, 312 p.
3. Mironenko O.I., Modelirovanie tekhnologicheskikh protsessov, vypolnyaemykh na proizvodstvennykh uchastkakh po remontu avtostsepnykh ustroystv vagonov (Modeling of technological processes carried out at production sites for the repair of auto-couplers of cars): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2019.
4. Rojas R.A., Rauch E., From a literature review to a conceptual framework of enablers for smart manufacturing control, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2019, V. 104, pp. 517Ц533.5. Smirnov V.A., Povyshenie effektivnosti tekhnologicheskikh sistem remontnogo proizvodstva i tekhnicheskogo obsluzhivaniya podvizhnogo sostava (Improving the efficiency of technological systems for repair production and maintenance of rolling stock): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2020.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The work is devoted to corrosion-mechanical testing of steels used for field pipelines operating under the conditions of the combined action of a corrosive environment and abrasive wear. The article presents the results of comparative tests of steels 20A and 09G2S, which revealed the reaction of the tested steels to a change in the hydrogen index pH during wear. During the tests, an adapted methodology according to ASTM G65 was used, which allows one to evaluate the complex effect of corrosion and mechanical factors. For a comparative assessment of the contribution of the corrosion factor to the fracture process, studies have been carried out on the development of corrosion processes on 20A and 09G2S steels in field media of different aggressiveness. Based on the data obtained during the study, equations were derived that characterize the general tendency for the corrosion rate to change depending on the value of pH of the production medium. According to the research of surface topography and profilograms of the tested samples, the contribution of the contact area to the wear rate was estimated. According to the rate of corrosion-mechanical wear, the destruction rates of the pipe surface were determined by the means of action of the medium with different abrasive contents. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, equations are derived to determine the contribution of the corrosion-mechanical factor. Having analyzed the results of corrosion and corrosion-mechanical tests of selected steels, the possibility of predicting their service life by separately studying the contribution of various factors to the fracture process is revealed. It is especially worth noting that the data obtained play an important role in risk assessment in the design of oil field pipelines.
1. Amezhnov A.V., Features and mechanisms of corrosion destruction of steels in various operating conditionsof oilfield pipelines (In Russ.), Problemy chernoy metallurgii i materialovedeniya, 2019, no. 2, pp. 34Ц42.
2. Zemenkova M.Yu., Puzina T.S., Maslakov S.V. et al., Settlement model and algorithm of definition of a residual resource of the pipe duct in the conditions of periodic changes of tension and corrosion (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2014, no. S4, pp. 174Ц183.
3. Prozhega M.V., Tatus' N.A., Smirnov N.N. et al., Erosion-corrosion of materials. Review (In Russ.), Trenie i smazka v mashinakh i mekhanizmakh, 2013, no. 10, pp. 3Ц8.
4. Silin Ya.V., Sistemnyy analiz nadezhnosti neftepromyslovykh truboprovodov Zapadnoy Sibiri metodami fiziki otkazov i teorii katastrof (Systematic analysis of the reliability of oilfield pipelines in Western Siberia using the methods of physics of failures and theory of catastrophes): thesis of candidate of technical science, Surgut, 2011.
5. Sarazha S., Levchenko A., Darenskikh A. et al., Investigation of corrosion destruction of the surfaces of oil pipelines after long-term operation (In Russ.), TekhNadzor, 2015, no. 10 (107), pp. 196Ц197.6. Sorokin G.M., Efremov A.P., Saakiyan L.S., Korrozionno-mekhanicheskoe iznashivanie staley i splavov (Corrosion-mechanical wear of steels and alloys), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2002, 424 p.
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With the intensive development in recent years of applied software in the field of studying and modeling hydromechanical processes, the authors of the article have carried out research by means of mathematical modeling of the design of a turbine flow meter (TFM) for oil and petroleum products in order to ensure the greatest stability of metrological characteristics. As a result of the analysis, the TFM parameters were identified that are most capable of affecting the stability of the conversion coefficient. An analytical hydromechanical model based on the theory of axial turbomachines has been developed to determine the degree of their influence on the stability of the conversion coefficient, as well as to predict its value depending on changes in the design of the TFM. In contrast to blades, in turbomachines, TFM blades operate at low angles of attack, and design optimization works are aimed at obtaining stable metrological characteristics in specified ranges of flow rate and viscosity of the pumped medium. In the process of computer implementation of the mathematical model, the structural characteristics of the TFM, which have the greatest effect on the stability of its metrological characteristics, were established, and the value of the conversion coefficient was predicted in all calculated ranges of flow rate and viscosities.
1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Sovremennoe sostoyanie vedeniya uchetnykh operatsiy s neft'yu i nefteproduktami s primeneniem izmeritel'nykh sistem v Rossii (The current state of accounting operations with oil and oil products using measuring systems in Russia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 246 p.
2. Gostelow J.P., Cascade aerodynamics, Pergamon, 1984. 270 p.
3. Kendall M.G., Stuart A., The advanced theory of statistics, V. 3, Design and analysis, and time series, London: Charles Griffin & Co., 1966.
4. Kil'dishev G.S., Frenkel' A.A., Analiz vremennykh ryadov i prognozirovanie (Time series analysis and forecasting), Moscow: Statistika Publ., 1973, 103 p.
5. Klimov A.M., Bryankin K.V., Nadezhnost' tekhnologicheskogo oborudovaniya (Reliability of technological equipment), Tambov: Publ. of TSTU, 2008, 104 p.
6. Kobzal' A.I., Prikladnaya matematicheskaya statistika. Dlya inzhenerov i nauchnykh rabotnikov (Applied Mathematical Statistics. For engineers and scientists), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2006, 816 p.
7. Korolev V.Yu., Veroyatnostno-statisticheskiy analiz khaoticheskikh protsessov s pomoshch'yu smeshannykh gaussovskikh modeley. Dekompozitsiya volatil'nosti finansovykh indeksov i turbulentnoy plazmy (Probabilistic-statistical analysis of chaotic processes using mixed Gaussian models. Decomposition of the volatility of financial indices and turbulent plasma), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2008, 390 p.
8. Lisienko V.G., Trofimova O.G., Trofimov S.P. et al., Modelirovanie slozhnykh veroyatnostnykh sistem (Modeling complex probabilistic systems), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of UrFU, 2011, 200 p.
9. Loytsyanskiy L.G., Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza (Mechanics of liquid and gas), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1970, 904 p.
10. El Khoury G.K., Schlatter P., Noorani A. et al., Direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow at moderately high Reynolds numbers, Flow Turbul. Combust, 2013, V. 91, pp. 475Ц495.
11. Nagib H.M., Chauhan K.A., Variation of von Kármán coefficient in canonical flows, Phys. Fluids, 2008, V. 20, DOI:10.1063/1.3006423
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The algorithm of actions in case of the threat or in the event of an accident related to oil and petroleum product spills at pipeline transportation facilities is presented in the relevant Oil and Petroleum Product Spill Prevention and Response Plans - OSPRP. The purpose of the article is to analyse the new legal requirements for the development and approval of the OSPRP. The specifics of developing, agreeing and approving an OSPRP at trunk pipeline facilities in Russia are reviewed. Issues of concern when developing, agreeing and approving an OSPRP that are relevant to the domestic system of main pipeline transport are highlighted. It has been established that a number of legislative acts adopted as a result of the implementation of the Уregulatory guillotineУ have fundamentally changed the outdated approach needed to be revised to the development, approval and adoption of the OSPRP in the field of regulation of activities related to the operation of trunk pipelines with regard to oil and petroleum product spill prevention and response. The article provides a detailed comparative analysis of the changes in the legal acts establishing the requirements for the development, approval and adoption of the OSPRP, which were in force until 31.12.2020 and which entered into force on 01.01.2021. It is noted, however, that while the main objectives of the development of an OSPRP remain unchanged, there remains a need for further detailed work on the creation of a base of by-laws that establish clear requirements for the OSPRP and eliminate the possibility of ambiguity on the part of both operating organizations and state supervisory authorities. It also noted the need to improve the OSPRP, taking into account modern accident forecasting methods based on the digitalization of production and the specifics of the operating organizations.
1. Radionova S.G., Lisin Yu.V., Polovkov S.A. et al., Methodical basis of ensuring of the fuel and energy complexТs industrial safety on the example of the oil and petroleum products pipeline transportation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 72Ц77.
2. Zakharchenko A.V., Gonchar A.E., Shestakov R.Yu., Pugacheva P.V., Improvement of legislation in the field of development and approval of plans for the prevention and elimination of oil spillage and spills of petroleum products at the facilities of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, no. 6, pp. 654Ц662.
3. Alykova O.I., Chuykova L.Yu., Chuykov Yu.S., Prevention and elimination of oil and petroleum spills, gaps in russian law and geoecological consequences (In Russ.), Astrakhanskiy vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, 2020, no. 4(58), pp. 137Ц156, DOI 10.36698/2304-5957-2020-19-4-137-156.
4. Shestakov R.Yu. et al., Razrabotka predlozheniy po zashchite territoriy ot razlivov nefti, nefteproduktov na osnove modelirovaniya razlivov pri vozmozhnykh avariyakh na ob"ektakh truboprovodnogo transporta (Development of proposals for the protection of territories from oil and oil product spills based on modeling of spills in case of possible accidents at pipeline transport facilities), Collected papers УMolodezh' i sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologiiФ (Youth and modern information technologies), Proceedings of XV International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists, Tomsk, 2018, pp. 217Ц218.
5. Aysmatullin I.R. et al., A systematic approach to protecting the Arctic from the effects of accidents on trunk pipelines (In Russ.), Neftegaz.Ru, 2018, no. 5, pp. 66Ц72.
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7. Fridlyand Ya.M. et al., Otsenka riska vozniknoveniya povrezhdeniy truboprovodov, raspolozhennykh v arkticheskoy zone Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Modelirovanie razliva s uchetom rel'efa mestnosti. Razrabotka meropriyatiy po zashchite territoriy Arktiki s obosnovaniem ekonomicheskoy effektivnosti ikh primeneniya (Assessment of the risk of damage to pipelines located in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Spill simulation taking into account the terrain. Development of measures to protect the territories of the Arctic with justification of the economic efficiency of their application), Sbornik rabot laureatov Mezhdunarodnogo konkursa nauchnykh, nauchno-tekhnicheskikh i innovatsionnykh razrabotok, napravlennykh na razvitie i osvoenie Arktiki i kontinental'nogo shel'fa 2016 (Collection of works of laureates of the International competition of scientific, scientific, technical and innovative developments aimed at the development and development of the Arctic and the continental shelf 2016), Moscow, 2016, pp. 42Ц44.8. Polovkov S.A. et al., Development of additional protecting constructions from oil spills based on three-dimensional digital modeling (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 197Ц205, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-2-197-205.
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The annual material damages from extreme weather events in the world are estimated at hundreds of billions of US dollars (in 2017 Ц 350 billion US dollars, in 2019 Ц 160 billion US dollars). Forecasts on climate changes indicate an increase in the frequency and scale of extreme weather events in the future. This article reviews the existing climatic (physical) risks for the oil and gas industry in Russia using the example of Rosneft Oil Company and potential adaptation measures to climate change. The study resulted in finding about 15 hazardous weather events and about 30 threshold values of hydrometeorological parameters that are taken into account in the Company's production activities. More than half of them are related to the temperature schedule Ц the range of restrictions is from -55 to 50 ∞—. Economic damage from the impact of weather and climatic factors is associated with harm to the health of the employees, forced downtime, changes in delivery terms, equipment breakdowns, destruction of infrastructure, etc. The Company applies minimum 150 regulations taking into account weather conditions at production work. At the end of 2020, Rosneft developed a Carbon Management Plan until 2035. Within the framework of the Plan, a separate section is devoted to measures for adaptation to physical climate risks, identified according to recommendations of Task Force for Climate Related Disclosure. The company assumes the organization of comprehensive monitoring of all natural environments. Based on this, it is planned to develop a forecast model of changes, as well as a methodology for assessing damage from the implementation of physical risks of climate change. Then, a corporate asset adaptation plan will be developed, which is subject to regular updating, and appropriate risk reduction measures will be taken.
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The work is devoted to the development of a simulation model of the grounding and lightning protection system of oil storage tanks, taking into account the heterogeneity of the soil. Among the reasons for significant non-production losses and a decrease in the sale of the extracted resource (oil) is fire, which leads to significant financial costs. A fire in a tank farm as a result of a lightning strike has a high probability associated primarily with errors in the design of the grounding system. In the regulatory documents, the permissible resistance of the grounding system is regulated by direct current without taking into account the frequency dependence of the electrical properties of the soil; however situations are possible when the soil has a high coefficient of its inhomogeneity, which significantly affects the spreading process when exposed to a lightning impulse. Therefore, when designing a grounding system, it is important to use a simulation model, which takes into account the value of the resistance of the grounding system, which depends on the inhomogeneity of the soil and the frequency range of the lightning impulse. The aim of the work was to estimate the impedance of the grounding system of a tank farm for oil storage in the frequency range of a lightning impulse using a simulation model. As part of the work, a simulation model of the grounding system in the multilayer soil of the tank farm was developed. Amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics of the resistivity of various types of multilayer soils have been obtained.
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