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January 2022



№01/2022 (выпуск 1179)

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* Моделирование влияния пластовой воды на вязкостные свойства полимерных реагентов для буровых растворов
* Оперативное прогнозирование разработки газовых месторождений на основе интегрированного прокси-моделирования
* Алфавитный указатель статей, опубликованных в журнале «Нефтяное хозяйство» в 2021 г.


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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

338.45:622.276
A.S. Sarkisov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.V. Nikolaeva (RZD JSCo, RF, Moscow)
Formation of optimal investment policy of small and medium-sized enterprises of the oil and gas industry

Keywords: small and medium enterprises, investment police, typical project, internal rates of return, dividend discount model

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important sources of economic growth, new jobs, healthy competition, contribute to the uniform development of the country's regions and the creation of an economy based on scientific knowledge and innovation. Since there is turbulence in the energy market in a globalized economy, SMEs must maintain their competitiveness in this unstable, rapidly changing economic and social environment, adapting to possible changes, because the most sustainable enterprises are not the most profitable and technically equipped, but those that adapt best to changes and crisis situations.

The paper analyzes the state and prospects of small business development in the Russian oil and gas industry. The method of forming the optimal investment policy of small and medium-sized enterprises of the oil and gas industry is described. It is based on the representation of their activities in the form of a set of standard projects (operations) related to a certain area of the oil and gas industry (hydrocarbon production, services in the field of hydrocarbon production, their processing, transportation, storage and sale of oil, petroleum products and gas, etc.). As an optimization criterion, the value of the enterprise is used, which is estimated using the dividend discounting model. The method is illustrated by the example of a small oil-producing enterprise, for which the optimal share of profit reinvested in new investment projects was determined, and the influence on the investment policy of the planning horizon and the required rate of return of the owners of the enterprise was studied. It is shown that the dependence of the enterprise value on the share of the reinvested profit is decreasing for short planning horizons, and it is a function that has a maximum for long planning horizons.

References

1. Edinyy reestr sub"ektov malogo i srednego predprinimatel'stva (Unified register of small and medium-sized businesses), URL: https://rmsp.nalog.ru/index.html

2. Indeks predprinimatel'skoy uverennosti (Entrepreneurial confidence index), URL: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/metod/prom/met_pred-uver.htm.

3. Nikolaeva E.V., The development of a method of the analysis of stability of small and medium oil and gas enterprises economic development (In Russ.), Sovremennaya ekonomika: problemy i resheniya, 2017, no. 9, pp. 92-103, DOI:10.17308/meps.2017.9/1774

4. Sarkisov A.S., Finansirovanie kapital'nykh vlozheniy (Capital investment financing), Moscow: URSS Publ., 2019, 288 p.

5. Dorfman R., The meaning of internal rates of return, Journal of Finance, 1981, V. 36, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021.

6. Komarov M.A., Lineynye raznostnye uravneniya i ikh prilozheniya (Linear difference equations and their applications), Vladimir: Publ. of  Vladimir State University, 2012, 42 p.

7. Hotelling H., A general mathematical theory of depreciation, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1925, V. 20, no. 151, pp. 340–353.

8. Gordon M.J., Dividends, earnings, and stock prices, The review of economics and statistics, 1959, V.41, no. 2, pp. 99–105.

9. Brealey R.A., Myers S.C., Allen F., Principles of corporate finance, McGraw–Hill, 2005.

10. Brigham E.F., Ehrhardt M.C., Financial management: Theory and practice, Cengage Learning, 2010, 1184 p.

11. Gordon M.J., Shapiro E., Capital equipment analysis: the required rate of profit, Management science, 1956, V. 3, no. 1, pp. 102–110.

12. Nikolaeva E.V., The analysis of stability of small and medium oil and gas enterprises functioning to adverse factors action (In Russ.), Sovremennaya ekonomika: problemy i resheniya, 2017, no. 7, pp. 91–99, 10.17308/meps.2017.7/1726
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-11-15

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

550.83+ 552.5 +553.98
I.A. Melnik (National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk)
Determination of the statistical intensity of secondary geochemical processes based on well logging data

Keywords: well-logging interpretation, well-logging, secondary geochemical processes, superimposed epigenesis, indicators of oil and gas saturation, intensity of secondary processes, secondary kaolinitization

The relevance of this paper is associated with the need to determine the indicators of oil and gas saturation of the missed formations based on the data of well-logging. Secondary geochemical processes caused by superimposed epigenesis can be indicators of oil and gas saturation.  The purpose of the paper is to show the method for calculating the values of the statistical intensity of secondary processes based on logging data, its theoretical justification and empirical confirmation of determining the intensity of secondary kaoliniteization. The intensity of secondary processes of stones is calculated by the ratio of the amount of the studied secondary minerals to the study area and the number of allogenic minerals genetically related to the secondary minerals. To substantiate the equivalence of the intensity of the secondary process to the correlation coefficient between discrete samples of random variables of well logging data, the following postulates were introduced: the statistical intensity of the secondary process is equivalent to the probability of this process; the standard deviation parameter, as a statistical analogue, corresponds to the number of allogenic minerals; the statistical analogue of the study area is the sample array. Based on the introduced three postulates of the equivalence of statistical intensity parameters with a two-dimensional probability of secondary processes, an algorithm for calculating the intensity of geochemical processes based on well-logging data is theoretically substantiated. The objects of research are terrigenous reservoirs of the Mesozoic deposits. The paper compares the results of the innovative technology of statistical-correlation interpretation of well logging data with the results of petrographic analysis of core sections for the correspondence of the mineral content of secondary kaolinite with the calculated intensities of this process. For the hydrocarbon fields of the Tomsk region and the Yamal Peninsula between the samples of the intensity of secondary kaoliniteization and the content of secondary kaolinite linear regressions were obtained with the correlation coefficients 0.7 and 0.62 correspondingly.

References

1. Lebedev B.A., Geokhimiya epigeneticheskikh protsessov v osadochnykh basseynakh (Geochemistry of epigenetic processes in sedimentary basins), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1992, 239 p.

2. Mel'nik I.A., Intensity determination of secondary geochemical processes based on statistical interpretation of GIS data (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2012, no. 11, pp. 35–40.

3. Mel'nik I.A., Identification of secondary converted terrigenous reservoirs based on the statistical interpretation data GIS (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2013, no. 4, pp. 29–36.

4. Mel'nik I.A., Intensities of superimposed epigenesis as indicators of oil saturation in sandstone reservoirs (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2019, V. 330, no. 6, pp. 90–97.

5. Trofimova E.A., Kislyak N.V., Gilev D.V., Teoriya veroyatnostey i matematicheskaya statistika (Theory of probability and mathematical statistics), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural University, 2018, 160 p.

6. Mel'nik I. A., Sharf I.V., Ivanova M.P., Statistical parameter of the double electric layer as an indicator of oil-saturation of the Lower-Middle Jurassic formation (Tomsk region) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 24–26, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-24-26

7. Mel'nik I.A., Reasons for formation of low-resistivity oil saturated reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 6, pp. 129–136.

8. Filippov E.M., Yadernaya geofizika. Neytronometriya i kompleksirovanie metodov yadernoy geofiziki (Nuclear geophysics. Neutronometry and integration of nuclear geophysics methods), Part 2, Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1973, 400 p.

9. Mel'nik I.A., Secondary kaolinization of sand formation as the sign of sedimentary cover tectonic deformations (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2014, no. 9, pp. 22–27.

10. Mel'nik I.A., Smirnova K.Yu., Cryogeochemical processes in the oxidation zones of ore deposits (Analytical review). Part 2. Nitrogen geochemistry in natural and anthropogenic landscapes (In Russ.), Geologiya i mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Sibiri, 2017, no. 3(31), pp. 58–66.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-16-20

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552.124
K.A. Belova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), N.A. Senachin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.M. Grechneva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Snohin (Kynsko-Chaselkoye Neftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.R. Shakirov (Kynsko-Chaselkoye Neftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.A. Loznyuk (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Neural simulation as a tool for predicting reservoir facies and petrotypes

Keywords: individual functions, lithotypes, neural simulation, neural facies, forecast

The paper describes an approach of automation of geological processes analysis by the neural simulation that calls for predicting facies and petrotypes in wells without core and with a limited well logging suite. In the course of the work, non-conventional approaches were applied to use the entire set of input data, including the historical wells stock with partially lost data. The cycle of data analysis and processing, network training and further modeling of facies and lithotypes in wells included the following stages: 1) matching input geological and geophysical data in wells; 2) describing core data and identifying facies that characterize depositional environments, as well as separating lithological types of net-reservoir and non-reservoir; 3) updating petrophysical model taking into account new data. Analyzing and justifying lithological groups and petrotypes identified on well logging data to obtain individual functions of porosity vs. permeability; 4) evaluating the possibility of predicting facies identified  on core by logging methods based on statistical analysis and neural networks; 5) grouping wells on the basis of existing set of logging curves, building a matrix of training cuttings; 6) training the network, separating facies identified based on the sedimentological analysis of core by logging methods in wells without core; 7) estimating predicted facies and petrotypes in wells by comparing actual and predicted data, as well as by checking with test well that was not included in the training. It is shown, high-quality network training makes it possible to get the right result allowing to use the entire data set, including partially distorted or noisy.

References

1. Baraboshkin E.Yu., Prakticheskaya sedimentologiya. Terrigennye rezervuary. Posobie po rabote s kernom (Practical sedimentology. Terrigenous reservoirs. On how to operate core samples), Tver': GERS Publ., 2011, 152 p.

2. Zverev K.V, Redina S.A. et al., Seismiofacies and petrofacial modeling of the Sigovskaya formation as a tool for removing uncertainties in the construction of a 3D geological model of the reservoir (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 4(14), pp. 20–25, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2019-4-20-25

3. Sergeev A.P., Tarasov D.A., Vvedenie v neyrosetevoe modelirovanie (Introduction to neural network modeling), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural University, 2017, pp. 26–31.

4. Kachurin S.I., Analiz primenimosti mnogosloynoy neyronnoy seti dlya raspoznavaniya litologicheskoy struktury skvazhiny po dannym geofizicheskikh issledovaniy (Analysis of the applicability of a multilayer neural network for recognizing the lithological structure of a well based on geophysical survey data): thesis of candidate of technical science, Izhevsk, 2003.

5. Rodina S.N., Application of artificial neural networks for well-log data interpretation (In Russ.), Vestnik VGU, 2007, no. 2, pp. 184–188.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-21-25

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550.834.017
G.S. Chernyshov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), A.A. Duchkov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Novosibirsk; Novosibirsk State University, RF, Novosibirsk), G.N. Loginov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), D.A. Litvichenko (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Nikitin (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Novosibirsk)
An approach to constructing a layered near-surface velocity model based on the first break times

Keywords: seismic exploration, near-surface structure, first-break traveltimes, neural networks, seismic ray tomography

Land seismic surveys are often carried out in regions with a complex structure of the upper part of the section. The main complicating factors are significant differences in relief heights, inhomogeneity of the low-velocity zone and the presence of high-velocity layers of permafrost. An important stage of processing, in this case, is the construction of a velocity model of the near-surface area based on the times of the first arrivals of seismic waves and its further accounting when constructing seismic images. The presence of boundaries in the resulting model may be necessary when choosing a floating or final datum or embedding in a depth model.

The article discusses approaches to automating the procedure for constructing a near-surface model within the framework of the reflected waves method. First, a method for automatic picking of the first break times was implemented based on convolutional neural networks. Testing on real data has shown that the use of neural networks provides a more robust acquisition of first break times compared to standard approaches implemented in processing packages. Secondly, a method is proposed for constructing a layered near-surface velocity model based on the first break times. We use ray seismic tomography to build a smooth velocity model, then we convert it to a layered model. Testing on synthetic data simulating the geological conditions of Western Siberia has shown the possibility of building the layered near-surface model with good accuracy. Finally, an example of the implementation of methods in the form of modules in a processing package for their further use for processing real data is shown.

References

1. Dolgikh Yu.N., Mnogourovnevaya seysmorazvedka i kinematicheskaya inversiya dannykh MOV – OGT v usloviyakh neodnorodnoy VChR (Multilevel seismic prospecting and kinematic inversion of the reflection and common depth point methods data in the conditions of the inhomogeneous upper part of the section), Moscow: EAGE Geomodel', 2014, 212 p.

2. Sysoev A.P., Prikladnye zadachi kompensatsii neodnorodnosti verkhney chasti razreza pri obrabotke i interpretatsii seysmicheskikh dannykh (Applied problems of compensation of heterogeneity of the upper part of the section during processing and interpretation of seismic data), Novosibirsk: Publ. of IPGG SB RAS, 2011, 88 p.

3. Davletkhanov R., Consideration of near-surface heterogeneities by static corrections or their inclusion in the reservoir model of the medium - what to choose (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2015, no. 1, pp. 76–91.

4. Akram J., Eaton D.W., A review and appraisal of arrival-time picking methods for downhole microseismic data arrival-time picking methods, Geophysics, 2016, V. 81, pp. KS71-KS91.

5. Kong Q., Trugman D.T., Ross Z.E. et al., Machine learning in seismology: Turning data into insights, Seismological Research Letters, 2018, V. 90, no. 1, pp. 3–14.

6. Boganik G., Gurvich I., Seysmorazvedka (Seismic survey), Tver: AIS Publ., 2006, 744 p.

7. Yilmaz Ö., Seismic data analysis, Tulsa: Society of exploration geophysicists, 2001, V. 1, 1809 p.

8. Seismic tomography: with applications in global seismology and exploration geophysics: edited by Nolet G.,Luxembourg:, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, V. 5, 385 p.

9. Zelt C.A., Traveltime tomography using controlled-source seismic data, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, 2011, pp. 1453–1473.

10. Nikitin A.A., Serdyukov A.S., Duchkov A.A., Cache-efficient parallel eikonal solver for multicore CPUs, Computational Geosciences, 2018, V. 22, no. 3, pp. 775–787.

11. Shalashnikov A.V., Finikov D.B., Khokhlov N.I., Ivanov A.M., New approaches in optimization of calculation of wave fields directly related to the selected target area of seismic response (In Russ.), Geofizicheskie tekhnologii, 2019, no. 1, pp. 4–32.

12. Zelt C.A., Sain K., Naumenko J.V., Sawyer D.S., Assessment of crustal velocity models using seismic refraction and reflection tomography, Geophysical Journal International, 2003, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 609–626.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-26-31

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550.834.052
K.E. Zakrevsky (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), R.K. Gazizov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.V. Vlasov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.E. Lepilin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), M.T. Yakupov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Tools for kinematic interpretation of seismic data in RN-GEOSIM

Keywords: 3D geometrical reservoir modeling, seismic kinematic interpretation

The article describes a module for kinematic seismic interpretation, created as a part of corporate software package for 3D geological modeling RN-GEOSIM. The relevance and necessity of combining the processes of kinematic interpretation and geological modeling in a single software package are considered. Such approach allows the arrangement of seismic and geological modeling elements in the form of an inseparable process in which inputs and outputs are combined into a single modeling graph. The features of the implementation of some kinematic interpretation tools as a part of a geological modeling package are described, in particular, data visualization, seismic and well logging data binding, determination of the velocity patterns, automatic and manual tracking of reflecting horizons and faults, performing a time-to-depth transformation for horizons and fault polygons. The main functionality of kinematic seismic interpretation module and description of mathematical algorithms developed by the specialists of Rosneft Oil Company are given. Rosneft’ experts successfully tested seismic kinematic interpretation module using information on several dozen objects of various genesis. It is concluded that the creation of this module made it possible to expand the possibilities of integrating the RN-GEOSIM into the corporate line of software products for modeling oil and gas fields of Rosneft Oil Company and corresponds to modern trends in the reservoir modeling software development.

References

1. Saakyan M.I., Zakrevskiy K.E., Gazizov R.K. et al., The prospects of corporate geological modeling software creation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 50-54, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-11-50-54

2. Baykov V.A., Bochkov A.S., Yakovlev A.A., Accounting of nonhomogeneity in Priobskoye field geological modeling and simulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 50–54.

3. Zakrevskiy K.E., Geologicheskoe 3D modelirovanie (3D geological modeling), Moscow: Publ of IPTs Maska, 2009, 376 p.

4. Wu X., Fomel S., Least-squares horizons with local slopes and multigrid correlations, Geophysics, 2018, V. 83(4), pp. IM29–IM40, DOI:10.1190/geo2017-0830.1

5. Khayrullin T.A., Shkuratov A.M., Spele V.V. et al., Aspekty programmnoy realizatsii modulya avtomaticheskoy korrelyatsii otrazhayushchikh gorizontov (Aspects of software implementation of the module for automatic correlation of reflectors), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference “Tsifrovye tekhnologii v dobyche uglevodorodov: ot modeley k praktike” (Digital technologies in hydrocarbon production: from models to practice), Ufa: Publ. of RN-BashNIPIneft', 2021.

6. Sukharev K.V., Badamshin B.I., Avtomaticheskaya korrelyatsiya otrazhayushchikh gorizontov s ispol'zovaniem neyronnykh setey (Automatic correlation of reflectors using neural networks), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference “Tsifrovye tekhnologii v dobyche uglevodorodov: ot modeley k praktike” (Digital technologies in hydrocarbon production: from models to practice), Ufa: Publ. of RN-BashNIPIneft', 2021.

7. URL: https://rn.digital/seismic_challenge/

8. Levyant V.B., Ampilov Yu.P., Glogovskiy V.M. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po ispol'zovaniyu dannykh seysmorazvedki (2D, 3D) dlya podscheta zapasov nefti i gaza (Guidelines for using seismic data (2D, 3D) for calculating oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Publ. of Central Geophysical Expedition, 2006, 40 p.

9. Zakrevskiy K.E., Gazizov R.K., Karimova E.N., Lepilin A.E., The test case to assess the quality of geological simulation packets (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ = Oil and Gas Territory, 2018, no. 9, pp. 36–49.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-32-35

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550.832
P.A. Shakhov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.E. Desyatnikova (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Berezovskaya (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Possibilities of forward stratigraphic modeling for geological tasks of different scales on the example of the Vietnam’s southern shelf

Keywords: Vietnam, Kuulong basin, Num Kon Son basin, forward stratigraphic modelling, exploration geology, regional geology

Forward stratigraphic modeling is one of the modern geologist's tools, aimed at step-by-step simulation of sedimentation processes. This method creates good possibility for prediction of reservoir property trends in lateral and vertical direction in undrilled zones of the study area. The range of forward stratigraphic modeling applying determines by its results. First of all, this is the creating of reservoir property trends for basin models of hydrocarbon systems. In regional modeling cases, prerequisites also arise for the applying of its results in the search prospecting strategy. In the cases of local modeling, the method can be applied for targeting (or correction) of exploration drilling. Besides, with a sufficiently high level of detailing, we have options for use of results directly in three-dimensional geological modeling. As examples illustrating the methods and results of forward stratigraphic modeling, the article considered a regional model for the southern part of the Kyulong Basin; local model of block 12-11 located in the western part of the Nam Kon Son basin; sector models within local areas of Block 09-1 (Kyulong Basin). The shown examples confirm the effectiveness of identifying reservoir property trends after forward stratigraphic modeling and the correspondence of these results with independent materials of geophysical studies (seismic exploration).

References

1. Einsele G., Sedimentary basins. Evolution, facies and sediment budget, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1992.

2. Nguyen Du Hung, Hung Van Le, Hoan Vu JOC, Hydrocarbon geology of Cuu Long Basin – Offshore Vietnam, Proceedings of AAPG International Conference, Barcelona, Spain, September 21-24, 2003, Article no. 90017.

3. Matthews S.J., Fraser A.J., Lowe S. et al., Structure stratigraphy and petroleum geology of SE Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, Petroleum Geology of SoutheastAsia. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 1997, V. 126, pp. 89–106, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1997.126.01.07

4. Kudryashov S.I., Le V'et Khay, Fam Suan Shon et al., The White Tiger field: from the history of development to development prospects (dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Vietsovpetro joint venture) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 6-14.

5. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Geological structure and oil and gas content of the offshore oil fields of JV "Vietsovpetro"): edited by Tu Than Nghia, Veliev M. M., St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2016, 524 p.

6. Shoup R.C., Morley R.J., Swiecicki T., Clark S., Tectono-stratigraphic framework and tertiary paleogeography of Southeast Asia: Gulf of Thailand to South Vietnam Shelf,  Proceedings of AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Singapore, September 16–19, 2012.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-36-39

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WELL DRILLING

622.692.4
D.I. Varlamov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.V. Kotok (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.A. Sadovnikov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Integrated approach to the exploration wells design for improving the exploration efficiency

Keywords: oil, gas, hydrocarbons, Vietnam, offshore, drilling, testing, logging while drilling (LWD), pressure testing while drilling (PTWD), drill stem test (DST), mini-DST, multivariate well design, increase in efficiency

The article discusses the applying of an integrated approach to the planning and detailed design of the exploration well, including identifying goals and objectives, developing a decision tree, justifying the use of modern research methods and technologies. This approach was used to obtain the maximum possible volume of reliable geological and geophysical information and increasing the efficiency of geological exploration at a complex geological object. At the preparation stage for the well drilling a multivariate design was implemented along with the optimal well head positioning for hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs exploration within several geological structures as well as decreasing of geological risks. The following technical and technological solutions were implemented during the drilling: geomechanics modelling and support, logging (LWD) and reservoir pressure testing (PTWD) while drilling, as well as testing in an open hole (mini-DST). It should be noted that PTWD and mini-DST technologies were used in Vietsovpetro JV for the very first time. Geomechanics service allowed to optimize the drilling mud parameters, to avoid complications during drilling and minimize the negative impact on the reservoir, as well as maintain the stability of the open hole 2 km long throughout the research. Geological and geophysical information (LWD and PTWD) obtained in real time allowed to perform an operational correlation, select coring intervals, evaluate reservoir properties and identify objects for mini-DST tests. As a result, due to the whole range of implemented technical and technological solutions, it was possible to avoid technical issues both during well drilling and long-term testing in the open hole, to obtain reliable characteristics of key objects, minimize all types of risks and significantly reduce the well cost. After the well completion hydrocarbon reserves and resources of Thien Nga – Hai Au field were estimated. Hydrocarbon production area of the key object (layer CS2 in Oligocene, the boundary of category 2P) increased by 25%, gas reserves (category 2P) increased by 70%, oil reserves (Miocene) (category 2C) – increased by 305%. The unit cost of the increase in hydrocarbon reserves due to drilling of the well 12/11-TN-4X was $10.87/TOE or $1.45/bbl. At the same time the cost of the increase in hydrocarbon reserves of the Thien Nga – Hai Au field is 2.3 USD/bbl (since 2012), which is the lowest value compared to other Vietsovpetro JV projects located outside the Block 09-1 area.

References

1. Gutman I.S., Saakyan M.I., Metody podscheta zapasov i otsenki resursov nefti i gaza (Methods for calculating reserves and estimating oil and gas resources), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2017, 366 p.

2. Spravochnik inzhenera-neftyanika (Handbook of a petroleum engineer), Part 4. Tekhnika i tekhnologii dobychi (Mining equipment and technologies): translated from English under the editorship of Shatrovskiy A.G., Borozdin S.O., Moscow: Publ. of  Institute of Computer Science, 2017, 1196 p.

3. Alvarado V., Manrique E., Enhanced oil recovery: field planning and development strategies, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2010, 209 p.

4. Bertolini C., Tripaldi G., Manassero E., Beretta E., A cost effective and user friendly approach for mini-DSTs Design, SPE-122886-MS, 2009, DOI:10.2118/122886-MS

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-40-44

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622.243.23.001
E.G. Grechin (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), V.G. Kuznetsov (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Sherbakov (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Determining the optimal location for sidetrack kickoff for inclined well

Keywords: profile design, lateral wellbore, well profile optimization, wells of complex spatial configuration, sidetracking, inclined wells

One of the ways to increase oil recovery is the construction of sidetracks, which makes it possible to bring into operation overlying or underlying formations. At present, the location of the sidetrack kickoff is determined based on the actual (design) trajectory of the main borehole (wound, drilled or new) and by enumeration of various options in computer modeling, as a result, the sidetrack profile may have a maximum curvature intensity, which leads to complications and accidents during construction. The paper considers the influence of the well length, through a horizontal projection relative to the position of the subsequent window cutting location, and gives an analytical solution for determining the sidetracking point, which reduces the total length of the well and, as a result, reduces its construction time. Based on the solution obtained, calculations were performed for 14 wells: in 70% of cases the location of extreme points met all the requirements and did not need to be corrected, for the remaining 30% of wells a scheme for correcting the sidetracking point was proposed. Based on optimized trajectories, an assessment was made of the effect of changing the well profile on the magnitude of the resulting axial loads; computer simulation was performed during drilling and tripping of drill pipes with a diameter of 147 and 89 mm and casing strings with a diameter of 178 and 114 mm (on a drilling tool with a diameter of 89 mm) using various models ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ columns. Based on the data obtained, a method for correcting the results of the analytical determination of the sidetracking point of the well was proposed in order to correct the geometric parameters of the well. It is proved that the correction technique allows optimizing the well profile.

References

1. Bastrikov S.N., Bastrikov D.S., Bobikyu L.A., Analysis of the geological conditions of the deposits in the western siberia for the use of multilateral wells (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2019, no. 6, pp. 54–56.

2. Oganov G.S., Potapov A.V., Application of sidetrack drilling technology for the restoration of gas wells on Cenomanian stratum in the Western Siberia Fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2019, no. 1, pp. 19–24.

3. Abdullin A.V., Abdullin I.K., Barannikov Ya.I., Maksimov A.Yu., Simultaneous separate (dual) production and injection. development prospects (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2021, no. 2, pp. 38–42.

4. Malyutin D.V., Bakirov D.L., Babushkin E.V., Svyatukhov D.S., Geomechanical modeling to solve the problem of wells construction in LLC "LUKOIL-Western Siberia" (on the example of Vategansky deposit) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no. 11, pp. 23–26.

5. Shcherbakov A.V., Grechin E.G., Kuznetsov V.G., Changing the profile of directional wells for the further sidetracking (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 92–96, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-92-96

6. Povalikhin A.S., Kalinin A.G., Bastrikov S.N., Solodkiy K.M., Burenie naklonnykh, gorizontal’nykh i mnogozaboynykh skvazhin (Directional, horizontal and multihole drilling), Moscow: Publ. of TsentLitNefteGaz, 2011, 647 p.

7. Bermant A.F., Aramanovich I.G. Kratkiy kurs matematicheskogo analiza (A short course in mathematical analysis), St. Petersburg: Lan' Publ., 2005, 735 p.

8. D'yakonov V.P., Maple 9.5/10 v matematike, fizike i obrazovanii (Maple 9.5/10 in Mathematics, Physics and Education), Moscow: SOLON-PRESS Publ., 2017, 720 p., URL: http: // www.iprbookshop.ru /90431.html.

9. Shcherbakov A.V., Determination of place of additional wellbore drilling in a multilateral well (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, no. 2015, no. 10, pp. 18–23.

10. Yuan Z., Robello S., Engineers’ dilemma: When to use soft string and stiff string torque and drag models, SPE-196205-MS, 2019, DOI:10.2118/196205-MS

11. Shcherbakov A.V., Abdrakhmanov R.R., Babushkin E.V., Kuznetsov V.G., Specific features of design of energy-saving profiles of wells with complex spatial configuration (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 9, pp. 14–17, DOI: 10.30713/0207-2351-2019-9(609)-14-17
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-45-49

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622.24.051.004.6
A.V. Pivovar (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), V.A. Kolesov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), S.A. Kalistratov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), F.A. Zagrivniy (Vostsibneftegas JSC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), M.V. Mishakov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Influence of geological conditions on wear-out of the bits in the Riphean deposits of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field

Keywords: wear-out of bit, Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field, Eastern Siberia, seismic facies

When drilling wells on the Riphean deposits of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field there occurs wear-out of the bits, that can be up to 10 bits for one well. However, there were examples when it was possible to drill a horizontal wellbore section in just 2-3 bits. The work performed on the bits selection didn’t allow finding a breakthrough solution, which would significantly reduce the wear-out of the bits on the study area. Alternative solution on reducing bit wear-out might be to predict zones with highly abrasive rocks in order to sink the operating wells outside of such zones, but not to the detriment of deposit development. The conducted comprehensive analysis of core data, well-logging, seismic data, well performance, geological and technological research and technical and technological support for well drilling made it possible to establish a connection between the seismic facies (chosen for geological drilling support) with the drill footage per one bit. It was found out that in low-amplitude seismic facies the average drill footage per bit is 48 % higher than in high- amplitude seismic facies (in average is 179 vs 121 m). The maximum average drill footage per bit values were achieved in the wells drilled in the zones of minor faults and fractures. The minimum average footage per bit was found in the zones of large disintegrations, cavernous porosity, leaching and cavern porosity, as well as in the zones of a relatively homogeneous dense section. The analysis of the average drill footage per bit according to the bit types showed that the best drilling results were achieved by PDC bits in the zones of minor faults, fractures and in the zones of large sections and paleo incisions developing along them. For these conditions multiple increase of drill footage is noted. In the zones of large disintegrations there is a slight advantage of roller-cone bits over PDC.

References

1. URL: https://www.rosneft.ru/press/news/item/202131/

2. SPE/IADC 16145. Application of the new IADC dull grading system for fixed cutter bits, 1987.

3. IADC/SPE 23939. First revision to the IADC fixed cutter dull grading system, 1992.

4. IADC/SPE 23940. Fixed-cutter drill bit classification system, 1992.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-50-53

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622.244.442.063.2
R.R. Akhmetzyanov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Talanov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
Modeling the effect of formation water on the viscosity properties of polymer reagents for drilling fluids

Keywords: viscosity, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), mineralized drilling fluid, mineralized formation water, modeling, modified starch, intrinsic viscosity

Assuming the specifications of the Eastern Siberia geological section, mineralized drilling fluids with polymers apply for the drilling of oil and gas wells. Efficiency of filtration control polymers in drilling mud composition depends on their chemical nature, molecular structure and physicochemical interactions between the mud components and the rocks and formation fluids, especially highly mineralized formation water. As a result of such interactions drilling fluid characteristics may get significantly worse, which usually leads to various complications in drilling process and decreases bottomhole formation zone permeability while exposing. The method of polymers efficiency and quality estimation was developed and tested out. It can be used to select the best polymer among similar types, study processes occurring to polymer during drilling and optimize polymer composition in drilling fluids applied in the geological conditions of the Eastern Siberia. The method is based on intrinsic viscosity measurements for polymers in various solvents. The research of polyelectrolyte effect on polymers of similar type with different degrees of polymerization and substitution was carried out. Modeling of interactions between polymers in drilling fluid and salts in formation water was made with applied CMC and modified starch. The reasons why obtaining exact mud characteristics could be complicated and the way characteristics change after physicochemical interactions are determined. Comparative assessment of CMC and modified starch stability in specific conditions is given. It was concluded that developed method is promising.

References

1. Tager A.A., Fiziko-khimiya polimerov (Physicochemistry of polymers), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 576 p.

2. Osovskaya I.I., Antonova V.S., Vyazkost' rastvorov polimerov (Viscosity of polymer solutions), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VShTE SPbGUPTD, 2016, 62 p.

3. Fedusenko I.V., Shmakov S.L., Praktikum po vysokomolekulyarnym soedineniyam (Workshop on high molecular weight compounds), Saratov: Publ. of Saratov University, 2018, 59 p.

4. Ulyasheva N.M., Tekhnologiya burovykh zhidkostey (Technology of drilling fluids), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2008, 164 p.

5. Nevolin F.V., Khimiya i tekhnologiya sinteticheskikh moyushchikh sredstv (Chemistry and technology of synthetic detergents), Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 1971, 424 p.

6. TU 2231-002-50277563-200. Natriy-karboksimetiltsellyuloza tekhnicheskaya. Tekhnicheskie usloviya (Technical sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Technical conditions), Perm:  Publ. of KARBOKAM-Perm', 2000.

7. Petropavlovskiy G.A., Gidrofil'nye chastichno zameshchennye efiry tsellyulozy i ikh modifikatsiya putem khimicheskogo sshivaniya (Hydrophilic partially substituted cellulose ethers and their modification by chemical crosslinking), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1988, 298 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-54-57

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622.244.4
A.M. Gaidarov (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Khubbatov (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow), V.M. Pishchukhin (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow), M.M-R. Gaidarov (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow)
Selection of rheological indicators of drilling fluids for wellbore cleaning

Keywords: drilling mud, inhibiting solutions, clayey rocks, cuttings, drilling speed, flow rate, plastic viscosity, shear stress

Poor wellbore cleaning is the cause of many well construction incidents and complications. In fact, 30% of sticking incidents in vertical wells and 80% of sticking incidents in horizontal wells are due to poor wellbore cleaning. When using inhibiting polymer in composition of drilling mud in case of wells of large diameter in suprasalt clayey sediments of Astrakhan gas condensate field there are problems caused by their low carrying capacity. For modern drilling fluids, including polycationic drilling fluids, dynamic shear stress and plastic viscosity are not convenient parameters for providing cuttings transport to the surface, especially at high mechanical drilling speeds in clayey sediments. It is proposed to regulate the value of shear stress and effective viscosity determined in the range of shear rates corresponding to the speed of upward fluid flow in the annulus of the borehole as the relevant rheological indicators to ensure cuttings transportation to the surface in the intervals with large diameters. The minimum value of shear stress is selected based on the difference of upward flow velocity and slip velocity, and the value of effective viscosity is determined by the results of tests at the well by the volume of cuttings carried out. To increase the efficiency of cuttings transport to the surface, when drilling vertical intervals with large diameters, it is most rational to use solutions with increased rheology parameters in combination with periodic pumping of viscous packs.

References

1. Kraus F.K., Ikeda S., Takeuchi T., Analysis of trends in improving the technology of horizontal wells and wells with a large deviation of the wellbore from the vertical (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 1997, no. 1, pp. 23–32

2. Martin M., Transport des deblais en puits inclines, Revue de L’Institut Francais du Petrole, 1989, V. 44, no. 4, pp. 443–460

3. Makovey N., Gidravlika bureniya (Drilling hydraulics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 536 p.

4. Gaydarov A.M., Khubbatov A.A., Gaydarov M.M-R., Experience with the application of Katburr modifications at the Astrakhan gas condensate field (In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 2018, no. 2, pp. 15–21.

5. VRD 39-1.8-045-2001. Metodika po vyboru reologicheskikh svoystv burovykh rastvorov i tekhnologii ochistki gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Methodology for the selection of rheological properties of drilling fluids and technologies for cleaning horizontal wells), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 2001, 20 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-58-62

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4
M.S. Shipaeva (Kazan (Volga Region)Federal University, RF, Kazan), D.K. Nurgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region)Federal University, RF, Kazan), V.A. Sudakov (Kazan (Volga Region)Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.A. Shakirov (Geoindicator LLC, RF, Kazan), A.A. Lutfullin (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), L.I. Minihairov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), L.A. Zinurov (Sofoil LLC, RF, Kazan)
Determination of well interaction degree based on integrated approach combining methods of well performance retrospective analysis and geochemical survey

Keywords: geochemistry; isotopic composition of water; well control optimization; hydrogeology of oil fields; modeling of oil fields; retrospective analysis

When developing small oil deposits related to formations with different reservoir properties, the following issues are relevant: 1) determination of the direction of injected water flows during the implementation of reservoir pressure maintenance systems; 2) maintenance of a rational value of injected/developed fluid ratio. As a practical example of determination of the direction of fluid flows from injection wells, it is proposed to conduct integrated studies of the geochemical properties of the formation fluid and the study of the conductivity of the interwell space based on a retrospective analysis of bottomhole pressure and production rate measurements. An integrated approach allows to reduce the uncertainty that arise in other methods of studying of the interwell space and give a more detailed and accurate conclusion. The essence of the integrated technology lies in the sequential geochemical analysis of wellhead samples, analysis of injection, production and reservoir pressure data, display of the results in a geological and reservoir simulation model. The advantage of the proposed technology is the combination of the results of geochemical surveys and retrospective analysis, which are inexpensive and quick methods. This will allow to quickly improve existing geological and reservoir simulation models, identify areas of low certainty of geological structure and significantly reduce the risks of unsuccessful wellwork.

References

1. Shipaeva M.S., I Nuriev.A., Evseev N.V. et al., Improving efficiency of oil recovery and finding a source of watering in multi-zone deposits by geochemical methods of research (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2020, V. 22, no. 4, DOI: 10.18599/grs.2020.4.93-97

2. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Ibragimov R.L., Pokrovskiy V.A., Gidrogeologicheskie usloviya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Hydrogeological conditions of oil deposits of Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2009, 254 p.

3. Alekseev F.A., Gottikh R.P., Saakov S.A., Sokolovskiy E.V., Radiokhimicheskie i izotopnye issledovaniya podzemnykh vod neftegazonosnykh oblastey SSSR (Radiochemical and isotopic studies of groundwater in oil and gas regions of the USSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 271 p.

4. Shishelova T.I., Tolstoy M.Yu., The current state of the science of water. Problems and prospects (In Russ.), Nauchnoe obozrenie. Referativnyy zhurnal, 2016, no. 4, pp. 61–80.

5. Shipaeva M., Nurgaliev D., Siraeva I. et al., Methodology for express definition of water inflow source in water-flooded wells operating multi-layer deposits by high-precision studies of water composition, Proceedings of 9th EAGE International Geological and Geophysical Conference, St. Petersburg, 2020, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.202053228.

6. Samtanova D.E., Comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the produced water of oil fields of the Republic of Kalmykia (In Russ.), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Fizika i khimiya, 2014, V. 1(59), no. 1, pp. 120–125.

7. Navrotskiy O.K., Dotsenko A.M., Loginova M.P., Brichikov N.G., Comparative hydrochemical analysis of oil and gas field deposit waters within the bounds of large geostuctural elements (In Russ.), Geologiya, geografiya i global'naya energiya, 2012, no. 4(47), pp. 36–44.

8. Leont'eva E.N., Changes in the chemical composition of produced water influenced by the development of oil fields in Verkhnekamskaya oil-bearing area (In Russ.), Perspektivy nauki, 2015, no. 2(65), pp. 7–10.

9. Osmond J.K, Kaufman M.J., Cowart J.B., Mixing volume calcu­lations sources and aging trends of Floriden aquifer water by uranium isotopic methods, Geochim. Cosmoch. – Acta, 1974, V.8, no. 7, pp. 1083–1100, DOI:10.1016/0016-7037(74)90006-4

10. Kireeva T.A., Gidrogeokhimiya (Hydrogeochemistry), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2016, 197 p.

11. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gulyaev D.N., Informatsionnoe obespechenie i tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya neftyanykh i gazovykh zalezhey (Information support and technologies of hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas deposits), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Izhevsk Institute of Computer Research, 2011, 896 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-64-69

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622.276.5.001.5
V.A. Iktissanov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.A. Smotrikov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.V. Baigushev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.Kh. Musabirova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), M.Kh. Bilalov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), D.A. Alenkin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Injection wells’ limited bottomhole pressures in carbonate reservoirs

Keywords: limited pressure, inflow performance relationship (IPR) curve, pressure draw-down curve, carbonate reservoirs, injection well, nonlinear flow, permeability

Carbonate reservoirs are characterized by low production rates and low oil recovery factors. This may be due to imperfection of the conventional waterflooding system. To overcome the production challenges, we need to improve our knowledge of waterflooding mechanisms in dual porosity carbonate reservoirs. Dedicated flow-after-flow tests involved 36 injection wells in carbonate reservoirs of Ttaneft PJSC. On the resulting Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR) curves intersection points represent limited pressures. Any pressure increase above these values would result in a rapid water breakthrough. The limited pressure values were also determined from sharp increase of the permeability-thickness product evident from the interpretation of injection and fall-off curves at different liquid rates made possible through different-size chokes. Predictably, this is caused by closing of fractures and matrix at pressure drawdown; maximum permeability was recorded on the injection curve with maximum injectivity. The resultant bar graphs of limited bottomhole pressure, wellhead pressure, and differential pressure vary significantly and lack normal distribution. So, further attempt was made to obtain a relationship between a limited pressure and some influencing parameter. The reservoir pressure was found to be the influencing parameter. The obtained relationships are characterized by high correlation number (R2>0.88) and have a physical meaning. The paper offers equations to determine a limited bottomhole pressure as a function of reservoir pressure for different types of carbonate reservoirs with a calculation error of less than 10 %. Maintenance of limited pressures will allow to improve the performance of waterflooded development of carbonate reservoirs.

References

1. Bakirov A.I., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii izvlecheniya nefti zavodneniem iz karbonatnykh kollektorov mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Improving the technology of oil recovery by waterflooding from carbonate reservoirs of Tatarstan fields): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2018.

2. Nugaybekov R.A., Shafigullin R.I., Kaptelinin O.V. et al., Evaluation of flooding system performance on oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs of Novo-Yelkhovskoe oil field (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 3, pp. 94-97.

3. Mukanov A.R., Bigeldiyev A., Batu A., Kuvanyshev A.M., Features of field development with tight carbonate reservoirs by waterflooding, SPE-202534-MS, 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/202534-MS

4. Ligin'kova Ya.S., Issledovanie osobennostey zavodneniya zalezhey nefti v karbonatnykh kollektorakh (na primere Gagarinskogo i Opalikhinskogo mestorozhdeniy) (Investigation of the features of waterflooding of oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs (on the example of the Gagarinskoye and Opalikhinskoye fields)), Collected papres “Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnykh i rudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh” (Problems of development of deposits of hydrocarbon and ore minerals), Proceedings of XII All-Russian scientific and technical conference, Perm: Publ. of PSTU, 2019, pp. 43–45.

5. Molokovich Yu.M., Markov A.I., Suleymanov E.I. et al., Vyrabotka treshchinovato-poristogo kollektora nestatsionarnym drenirovaniem (Development of a fractured-porous reservoir by non-stationary drainage), Kazan': Regent" Publ., 2000, 156 p.

6. Diyashev R.N., Sovmestnaya razrabotka neftyanykh plastov (Joint development of oil reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 208 p.

7. RD 153-39.0-918-15. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu predel'no-dopustimykh zaboynykh davleniy (Methodological guidelines for determining the maximum permissible bottomhole pressures), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2015, 29 p.

8. Iktisanov V.A., Bobb I.F., Ganiev B.G., Study of the problem of optimization of bottomhole pressure for fractured-porous reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2017, no. 10, pp. 94–97, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-94-97

9. Iktisanov V.A., Bobb I.F., Fokeeva L.Kh., Consequences of deviations of bottomhole pressures from optimal values (In Russ.), Oil Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 8(118), pp. 60–64.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-70-73

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OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING

681.518:622.279.23/.4
Yu.A. Arkhipov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.S. Rusanov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.N. Orekhov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.I. Sadykov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), P.V. Merkushin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Kadnikov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.I. Smirnov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Strekalov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen), S.M. Knyazev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Centre LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Operational forecasting of gas field development based on integrated proxy modeling

Keywords: hydrodynamic simulator, integrated proxy modeling, prediction of field development indicators, automatic adaptation algorithms

The main tools for predicting field development indicators are three-dimensional geological and hydrodynamic modeling software systems. The specificity of modeling gas and gas condensate objects is associated with the significant influence of the gas gathering and treatment network on the technological modes of wells operation. This necessitates the creation of integrated models of the ‘reservoir – wells – surface infrastructure’ systems. The tools available for integrated modeling are usually complex and labor intensive to use. The current digitalization trend dictates the need to significantly accelerate all business processes, including forecasting field development indicators. Rosneft Oil Company is one of the industry leaders in creating its own software, actively developing various areas of digitalization. The article presents a new software module for integrated proxy modeling, developed  by the employees of Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC (a subsidiary of Rosneft Oil Company), which makes it possible to accelerate the forecasting of gas reservoir development indicators and take into account the operation of all elements of the ‘reservoir – wells – gas gathering network – compressor’. The reservoir model is single-layer with the specified parameters of the framework and reservoir properties, PVT properties of saturating fluids and relative phase permeability. The input data for well modeling are inclinometry, information on the parameters of tubing and productivity in the form of filtration resistance coefficients. The calculation of in-situ fluid filtration is based on the basic laws of hydrodynamics and material balance. To assess the performance of the module, a comparison of the results of calculations on the proxy model with the results of calculations on a commercial simulator was performed, which showed a high degree of convergence. The results of successful approbation show that the inherent solutions make it possible to achieve a high design speed and correctness of the results with a minimum set of initial data.

References

1. Kuzevanov M.A., Glumov S.V., Buchinskiy S.V., Integrated model of a system reservoir - well - gathering system - processing facility of a multilayer oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 25–27

2.  Kharitonov A.N., Pospelova T.A., Loznyuk O.A. et al., Procedure for justifying process conditions of gas and gas condensate wells using integrated models (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 4, pp. 41–47, DOI:10.30713/0207-2351-2020-4(616)-41-47

3. Strekalov A.V., Matematicheskie modeli gidravlicheskikh sistem dlya upravleniya sistemami podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya (Mathematical models of hydraulic systems for controlling reservoir pressure maintenance systems), Tyumen: Tyumenskiy dom pechati Publ., 2007, 664 p.

4. Strekalov A.V., Knyazev S.M., Raschet tekhnologicheskogo rezhima gazovogo promysla na osnove bystrodeystvuyushchey modeli “GasNet-VBA” (Calculation of the technological regime of the gas field based on the high-speed model GasNet-VBA),  Proceedings of 4th scientific and practical conference “Rosgeologiya. V poiskakh novykh otkrytiy” (Rosgeologia. In search of new discoveries), Irkutsk, 17–18 October 2019, Irkutsk: Publ. of Rosgeologiya, 2019.

5. Pospelova T.A., Mechanism for constructing a universal mathematical proxy model of hydrodynamic systems of oil and gas fields based on the method of large control volumes (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2021, no. 5, pp. 40–43.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-74-76

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622.276.012.69
G.G. Gilaev (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar), M.Ya. Khabibullin (Oktyabrsky Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Oktyabrsky), D.G. Antoniadi (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar; NK Rosneft – NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar)
Infrastructure reengineering as an effective tool for maintaining base production

Keywords: re-engineering infrastructure, ground-based infrastructure, infrastructure constraints, field gathering system, treatment facilities, increased water extraction, water disposal, reduced piping, reduced pressure in field gathering system

The hydrocarbon production process is characterized by operational features that are unique for each region. An extensive list of physical and chemical parameters of the fluid, different depths of bedding, many in-situ complicating factors of production, different climatic conditions set the vector for the development of the oil and gas industry for each region. In order to maintain production at the current level, oil companies are forced to seek new horizons for drilling wells and carry out various geological and technical measures to intensify oil production. In the same time these measures contribute to a significant increase in the volume of produced formation water. This fact has a direct, negative impact on the existing ground infrastructure (oil treatment and gas compression facilities, reservoir pressure maintenance, power supply, etc.) and engineering networks. One of the most effective methods to reduce operating costs at mature oil production assets is reengineering of onshore infrastructure facilities. Reengineering measures allow to optimize the production process, to unload existing on-site facilities, the collection system, to reduce hydraulic losses for oil transportation and pumping of produced water. The development of a reengineering program is carried out taking into account the assessment of the prospects and the selection of the most optimal measures, using scenario planning. As part of the analysis of the impact on the production process, 4 main directions of reengineering on a mature asset have been identified, which are the foundation of the production process in terms of ground infrastructure. The authors propose a solution that will contribute to ensuring the efficiency of oil and gas production processes, extend the life cycle of mature oil and gas production assets of the Russian Federation and their economic profitability.

References

1. Gilaev G.G., Control of technological processes on an oil output intensification (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 10, pp. 74–77.

2. Tsykin I.V., Zav'yalov O.V., Solovey N.S., Mature deposits infrastructure reengineering unification (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport, 2011, no. 5 (27), pp. 4–6.

3. Wilfredo A.R., Colina J., Montero L. et al., Re-engineering tank farms, SPE-38818-MS, 1997, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/38818-MS

4. V.A. Smyslov, M.S. Meleshko, T.P. Chaplygina et al., Mathematical approaches to solving the reengineering problems (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 2, pp. 80–84.

5. Protsessy i apparaty tekhnologiy sbora i podgotovki nefti i gaza na promyslakh (Processes and devices of technologies for gathering and treating oil and gas in the fields): edited by Kudinov V.I., Moscow – Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute for Computer Science, 2013, 471 p.

6. Khabibullin M.Ya., Systematization of methods of water injection in wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2019, V. 17, no. 3, pp. 80–86, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2019-3-80-86.

7. Gilaev G.G., Gladunov O.V. et al., Facilities optimization as an element of cost management in the oil & gas field development (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2015, no. 3 (40), pp. 78–80.

8. Gilaev G.G., Gladunov O.V., Grishagin A.V. et al., Improving the validity of economic evaluations of measures to optimize structures at ground oil single wells (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 2, pp.  53–55.

9. Khabibullin M.Ya., Development of the design of the sucker-rod pump for sandy wells, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/560/1/012065.

10. Khabibullin M.Ya., Research of processes in a pipe string at a wellhead pulse injection of liquid to a well (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2018, V. 16, no. 6, pp. 34 – 39, DOI:10.17122 / ngdelo2018-6-34-39

11. Khabibullin M.Ya., Increasing efficiency of liquid systems separation for formation fluid gathering (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 64–71, DOI:10.17122/ngdelo-2020-2-64-71.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-77-81

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

621.865.8
K.O. Ilin (RN−BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N.N. Kraevskiy (RN−BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.A. Gavrilova (RN−BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Developing the concept of a robotic technological complex for well servicing and workover

Keywords: robotic technological complex (RTC), RTC concept, automation, well repair, descent-lifting operations, technological process, increased efficiency

At the present stage of development of the oil and gas industry, the most important is the development of technologies for the extraction of hydrocarbon raw materials. It is known that well equipment wears out from long-term operation, as a result of which it is subject to repair. For the repair and maintenance of such equipment, descent and lifting operations of pumping and compressor pipes or steel drill pipes are carried out. It is known that it is necessary to ensure smooth running when performing descent-lifting operations, to increase their productivity, to reduce the likelihood of errors due to the influence of the human factor. To solve this problem, it is proposed to use automation and robotization tools for technological operations. The key direction in the robotization of technological processes is the transition from the use of individual robotic manipulators to robotic technological complexes. When creating such RTCs, it is necessary to consider the robot in connection with the subsystems of transportation, maintenance, control, etc. Thus, industrial robots are the basis of robotic technological complexes, the important features of which are the flexibility of reconfiguration and the possibility of continuous operation. This is a necessary condition for the introduction of integrated automation of technological processes. The robotization of preparatory and final, descent and lifting and other operations when performing major well repairs provides ample opportunities to reduce the risk of emergency situations, as well as to increase the economic efficiency of production processes.

Список литературы

1. Алексеев А. Ремонт без ошибок и простоев // Сибирская нефть. – 2021. – № 1/178. – С. 46–49.

2. Макаров М.Н., Мунасыпов Р.А., Шарипов М.И. Автоматизация спускоподъемных операций насосно-компрессорных труб для проведения ремонта скважин//Инновационное и цифровое машиностроение: сб. трудов. Всеросс. научно-техн. конф. – Уфа: УГАТУ, 2021. – https://ugatu.su/elektronnyie-izdaniya/

3. Обзор нефтесервисного рынка России. Исследовательский центр компании «Deloit» в СНГ Москва. – М., 2019. – https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ru/Documents/energy-resources/Russian/oil-gas-russia-...

4. К вопросу о развитии технологий роботизации и автоматизации в области текущего и капитального ремонта скважин / А.С. Сенькин, Н.Н. Краевский, К.О. Ильин, Р.А. Мунасыпов // Нефтегазовое дело. – 2020. – Т. 18. – № 3. – С. 61–68. – DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2020-3-61-68.

5. Методологические основы внедрения робототехнических систем в целях повышения эффективности ремонта НКТ / К.О. Ильин, Н.Н. Краевский, О.А. Гаврилова [и др.] // Нефтяное хозяйство. – 2021. – № 9. – С. 108–111. – DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-9-108-111.

6. Пат. 2736589 РФ. Робототехнический комплекс для текущего и капитального ремонта скважин / А.С. Сенькин, С.А. Подгорный, К.О. Ильин; заявитель и патентообладатель ПАО «НК «Роснефть». – № 2019141316; заявл. 13.12.2019; опубл. 18.11.2020.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-82-85

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.692.23-027.45
N.P. Aleshin (Welding and Testing Scientific-Educational Center, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, RF, Moscow), L.Yu. Mogilner (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), Yu.V. Lisin, N.V. Krysko (Welding and Testing Scientific-Educational Center, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, RF, Moscow), O.A. Prydein (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), M.T. Idrisov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Characteristic of cracks detection during ultrasonic testing of weld joints of vertical stock tanks’ wall

Keywords: diagnostics of tanks, weld joints, longitudinal and transverse cracks, ultrasonic testing, sensitivity, sounding directions

The issues of detecting defects of weld joints of the vertical stock tank (VST) wall for storing oil and oil products when diagnosing their technical condition have been considered. It is noted that earlier the main method of quality control of weld joints during construction was radiography, which requires double-sided access to the weld joint. The use of this method is limited in case of complete diagnostics and is generally impossible in case of partial diagnostics without emptying and stripping of VST. Therefore, now, ultrasonic testing takes an essential place in the composition of the examination methods being applied, including availability of one-sided and double-sided access to the controlled object. The advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing of VST wall have been specified. The problems arising when using the ultrasonic testing to detect the most dangerous defects of surface and subsurface cracks in weld joints have been noted.  The possibilities of up-to-date ultrasonic technologies for visualizing such cracks with partial and complete diagnostics have been considered. The feasibility of adjusting the sensitivity and some other parameters of ultrasonic testing to increase the detectability of near-surface cracks has been noted. The characteristics of detecting longitudinal and transverse cracks in straight sections of butt weld joints and in the cross lines of vertical and horizontal weld joints of VST wall have been described. It is specified that in order to minimize the testing cost it is necessary to take particular care over choosing the direction and step of scanning. For longitudinal cracks in weld joints detecting, it is recommended to orient ultrasonic transducers perpendicular to the weld axis, and for detecting transverse cracks - at an acute angle to this axis.

Список литературы

1. Гурвич А.К., Ермолов И.Н. Ультразвуковой контроль сварных швов. – Киев: Техника, 1972. – 460 с.

2. Алешин Н.П. Физические методы неразрушающего контроля сварных соединений. – М.: Машиностроение. 2013. – 574 с.

3. Техническая диагностика объектов транспорта нефти и нефтепродуктов / Ю.В. Лисин, А.М. Шаммазов, Б.Н. Мастобаев, А.Е. Сощенко. – СПб.: Недра, 2011. – 488 с.

4. Применение метода TOFD для контроля горизонтальных швов стенок вертикальных стальных резервуаров, находящихся в эксплуатации / А.В. Неганов, О.И. Филиппов, И.И. Михайлов [и др.] // Наука и технологии трубопроводного транспорта нефти и нефтепродуктов. – 2019. – Т. 9. – С. 306–314.

5. Introduction to Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology. – Canada: Quebec, Olympus, 2007.

6. Гинзел Э. TOFD. Дифракционно-временной метод ультразвуковой дефектоскопии. – М.: ДПК Пресс, 2021. – 312 с.

7. Нобл Б. Применение метода Винера – Хопфа для решения дифференциальных уравнений в частных производных – М.: Изд-во Иностранной литературы. 1962. – 279 с.

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9. Общее решение задачи рассеяния упругих волн на плоской трещине / Н.П. Алешин, А.А. Кириллов, Л.Ю. Могильнер, Е.П. Савелова // Доклады Российской академии наук. Физика, технические науки. – 2021. – Т. 499. – С. 58–65. – DOI: 10.31857/S2686740021040027

10. Оптимизация параметров механизированного ультразвукового контроля протяженных сварных швов / Н.П. Алешин, Н.В. Крысько, Н.А. Щипаков, Л.Ю. Могильнер // Наука и технология трубопроводного транспорта нефти и нефтепродуктов. – 2020. – Т. 10. – № 6. – С. 352–363.

11. Гейт А.В., Михайлов И.И., Могильнер Л.Ю. Развитие технологии наружного диагностирования объектов магистральных нефтепродуктопроводов с применением комплекса методов неразрушающего контроля // Материалы XXII Всероссийской научно-технической конференции по неразрушающему контролю и технической диагностике «Трансформация неразрушающего контроля и технической диагностики в эпоху цифровизации. Обеспечение безопасности в изменяющемся мире», Москва, 3–5 марта 2020 г. – М.: Издательский дом «Спектр», 2020. – С. 30–33.

12. Алешин Н.П., Могильнер Л.Ю., Скрынников СВ. О настройке параметров систем с синтезированной апертурой при ультразвуковом контроле сварных соединений // Наука и технология трубопроводного транспорта нефти и нефтепродуктов. – 2021. – Т. 11. – № 5. – С. 535–545. – DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2021-11-5-535-545

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-86-91

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4.004.6
A.R. Valeev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University), B.N. Mastobaev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University), E.M. Movsumzade (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University), R.R. Tashbulatov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University)
Developing a method for diagnostics of oil and gas pumping equipment using three-axis strain gauge sensor

Keywords: technical diagnostics, diagnostics, technical condition, strain gauge sensor, oil pumping unit, gas pumping unit

The article is devoted to issue of technical diagnostics of oil and gas pumping equipment. The article presents modern problems in the diagnosis of equipment that is in operation. Three trends are presented, formulated at the moment by the global situation in industry. The first is the relevance of the transition of equipment maintenance from a system of scheduled preventive repairs to maintenance according to the actual technical condition. The second is the current trend towards automation and digitalization, which is completely impossible using the currently used diagnostic methods. Also relevant are those methods of technical diagnostics that can be used within the framework of unmanned technologies for the operation of objects. The third is the need to search for and develop new approaches to obtaining initial information for technical diagnostics. The main sources of information at the moment are the vibration values on the surface of the equipment, the general parameters of the unit, and the temperature. Less often - acoustic parameters, information on the oil condition, electrical parameters of the electric drive. All these methods are more or less indirect, which reduces the accuracy when used, complicates automation, requires experienced experience and often highly qualified specialists. In this regard, the authors are developing a new method of equipment diagnostics that uses force measurements at certain points of the equipment using three-axis strain gauge sensor. By processing measurements in real time, according to the mathematical models developed in the article, it is possible to determine the exact coordinates of the source of vibrations in space, in other words, the defective node. Together with the information about the frequency and intensity of vibrations, it is possible to identify the defect with high accuracy. The models are considered and the corresponding formulas for determining the location are obtained in the case of installing equipment on four supports, and when using a frame foundation.

References

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3. Saubanov O., Valeev A., The monitoring system of an actual technical condition for pumping units with frequency analysis, Procedia Engineering: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Dynamics and Vibroacoustics of Machines, DVM 2016, Samara, 29 June, Samara: Elsevier Ltd, 2017, pp. 144 – 149.

4. Pasport Programmy innovatsionnogo razvitiya PAO "Gazprom" do 2025 goda (Passport of the innovative development program of PJSC "Gazprom" until 2025), URL: https://www.gazprom.ru/f/posts/97/653302/prir-passport-2018-2025.pdf

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6. Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Development of a method for determining the geometrical position of defects of the pumping equipment using remote strain gauge analysis (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2019, no. 3, pp. 11–15, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2019-10302

7. Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Karimov R.M. et al., Approval of the method for determining the geometrical position of multiple defects of the pumping equipment using remote strain gauge analysis (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2019, no. 4, pp. 5–10, DOI:10.24411/0131-4270-2019-10401

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-92-95

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

504.06
O.G. Lapteva (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), E.A. Merzlyakova (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), N.V. Kiseleva (Kuban State University, RF, Krasnodar)
Features of environmental risk management in the oil and gas industry

Keywords: environmental protection, oil and gas industry, risks, environmental management system, sustainable development, environmental risks

The article discusses international and national initiatives in the field of environmental protection, encouraging enterprises to increase attention to the implementation of environmental quality management systems and the continuous improvement of methodologies for determining and assessing environmental risks in order to increase the validity of management decisions. The analysis of the features of environmental risk management of oil and gas industry enterprises is carried out on the basis of a number of criteria: environmental management, the impact of activities on the environment and the openness of information based on the study of the data of environmental reports, reports on sustainable development, the final rating of openness of oil and gas companies in Russia in the field of environmental responsibility (published at the time of writing). Based on this information, a content analysis of the activities of a number of Russian oil and gas companies in the field of environmental initiatives, environmental management and risk management systems was conducted. As a result, a common vision of the situation was formed; common patterns and features of the complex under consideration, organizational risks faced by enterprises associated with the construction of a system of planning, monitoring and risk analysis were identified. Possible tools for improving the manageability of the system are proposed, such as automation of the process of identification, assessment, monitoring and analysis of risks; integration with software tools for modeling business processes; application of statistical methods for assessing risk data; analysis of cause-and-effect relationships of risk factor manifestations; organization of internal audit of the environmental management system taking into account risk data, which will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire risk management system.

References

1. Tseli ustoychivogo razvitiya. OON i Rossiya: doklad o chelovecheskom razvitii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Sustainable development goals. UN and Russia: Human development report for the Russian Federation): edited by Bobylev S.N., Grigor'ev L.M., Moscow: Publ. of Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation, 2016, 293 p., URL: https://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/a/11068.pdf

2. Osnovy gosudarstvennoy politiki v oblasti ekologicheskogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2030 goda (Fundamentals of state policy in the field of environmental development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030), URL: http://government.ru/docs/7280/

3. Gallyamova E.I., Assessment of production risks as a method of safety management in the oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. 3, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/issues/3_2016/ogbus_3_2016_p293-306_GallyamovaEI_ru.pdf

4. Butorin N.N., Pavlov D.A., Risk management automation (In Russ.), Vestnik nauki i obrazovaniya, 2018, V. 2, no. 5(41), pp. 39–41.

5. Tolstonogov A.A., Impact assessment of environmental risks to oil complex effectiveness (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2015, no. 2-1, pp. 100–103, URL: http://fundamental-research.ru/ru/article/view?id =36625.

6. Otchet v oblasti ustoychivogo razvitiya PAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2019 (2019 Rosneft sustainability report), Moscow: Publ. of Rosneft', 2020, 234 p, URL: https://www.rosneft.ru/Development/reports/

7. Otchet ob ustoychivom razvitii Gruppy “LUKOYL” za 2019 god (2019 LUKOIL Group Sustainability Report), Moscow: Publ. of LUKOYL, 2020, 187 p., URL: https://lukoil.ru/InvestorAndShareholderCenter/ ReportsAndPresentations/SustainabilityReport

8. Otchet Gruppy Gazprom o deyatel'nosti v oblasti ustoychivogo razvitiya za 2019 (2019 Gazprom Group sustainability report), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 2020, 282 p., URL: https://www.gazprom.ru/f/posts/ 77/885487/sustainability-report-rus-2019.pdf.

9. Otchet ob ustoychivom razvitii  “Gazprom neft'” 2019 (2019 Sustainability report Gazprom Neft), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom neft', 2020, 180 p., URL: https://csr2019.gazprom-neft.ru/#future-oriented-company.

10. Otchet ob ustoychivom razvitii “Transneft'” 2019 (2019, Transneft sustainable development report), Moscow: Publ. of Transneft', 2020, 178 p., URL: https://www.transneft.ru/development/otchet-ob-ystoichivom-razvitii/

11. Muzalevskiy A.A., Upravlenie riskom (Risk management), St. Petersburg: Publ. of RSHU, 2020, 56 p.

12. Fedorov A., Elmanova N., Vvedenie v OLAP-tekhnologii Microsoft (Introduction to Microsoft OLAP Technologies), Moscow: Dialog-MIFI Publ., 2002, 268 p.

13. Adler Yu.P., Shper V.L., Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po statisticheskomu upravleniyu protsessami (A practical guide to statistical process control), Moscow: Al'pina Pablisher Publ., 2019, 234 p. 

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15.  Liker J.K., The Toyota Way: 14 management principles from the world's greatest manufacturer, McGraw-Hill, 2004, 352 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-1-96-100

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Alphabetical index of articles published in “Oil industry” journal in 2021



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