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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

553.98.042
S.A. Punanova (Oil and Gas Research Institute of the RAS, RF, Moscow)
On the need for a systemic approach to the assessment of the prospects for oil and gas potential of sedimentary basins

Keywords: oil systems, classification, quality features of deposits, oil and gas basins, hydrocarbons, combination traps, reservoirs

Priority directions for the development of the oil and gas complex is a systematic approach to assessing the prospects for the oil and gas potential of the regions. Based on the classification of oil systems proposed by Chinese researchers, the article discusses the characteristic features of the reservoirs of various oil and gas basins. There are three main types of petroleum hydrocarbon accumulations, which are characterized by the quality of the reservoir itself and the morphology of the traps, in combination with the corresponding indicators of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. In accordance with the designated types of reservoirs, oil systems with their features of hydrocarbon ontogenesis are considered: source-rock petroleum system (or source system) with continuous reservoirs; an oil and/or gas oil system in tight, low-permeability rocks with quasi-continuous reservoirs and a traditional (conventional) reservoir oil system with discontinuous (discrete) reservoirs. It seems that the three oil systems under consideration can contain both a common source and several sources of hydrocarbons and from the standpoint of their formation and distribution, be genetically related to each other, i.e. be present in each pool as part of a single whole. Effective search and exploration at all stages requires comprehensive studies and various strategies taking into account the adoption of the paradigm of the integrity of the oil and gas basin in terms of the ontogenesis of oil and gas accumulations, their commonality and differences (in terms of the original source suites, migration processes, formation of traps and destruction clusters). Some information about the sedimentary basins of Australia, the Permian basin of the USA and the West Siberian oil and gas basin of Russia is given (both poor and rich in reserves and resources are used as examples). In each of the considered basins, it is proposed to assess the prospects of the territories in a comprehensive and systematic way, taking into account the classification features of oil systems.

References

1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Izbrannye trudy (Selected works), Part 1, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2008, 454 p.

2. Skorobogatov V.A., Silant'ev Yu.B., Salina L.S., Perspektivy razvitiya neftegazovoy geologii i problemy resursnogo obespecheniya gazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Rossii (Prospects for the development of oil and gas geology and problems of resource support for gas producing regions of Russia), Collected papers Problemy resursnogo obespecheniya gazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Rossii do 2030 (Problems of resource provision for gas-producing regions of Russia until 2030), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom VNIIGAZ, 2010, pp. 37.

3. Jing-Zhou Zhao, Jun Li, Wei-Tao Wu et al., The petroleum system: a new classification scheme based on reservoir qualities, Petroleum Science, 2019, V. 16, pp. 229251, DOI: 10.1007/s12182-018-0286-2

4. Krayushkin V.A., Klochko V.P., Guseva E.E., Maslyak V.A., Successes in oil and gas exploration on the continental slopes of Australia and New Zealand (In Russ.), Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Mirovogo okeana, 2012, no. 1, pp. 88102.

5. Fedorov A., Discover Australia (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2000, no. 56, URL: http://www.oilru.com/nr/72/591/

6. Richardson A., Australia imports almost all of its oil, and there are pitfalls all over the globe, The Conversation, 23.05.2018, URL: https://theconversation.com/ australia-imports-almost-all-of-its-oil-and-there-are-pitfalls-all-over-the-globe-97070.

7. Punanova S.A., Vinogradova T.L., Immature oils of deep-water facies: physicochemical properties and hydrocarbon and trace-element composition (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, 2010, no. 11, pp. 12141223.

8. Interim Gippsland Basin unconventional resource assessment, Canberra: Geoscience Australia, 2017, 67 p., URL: https://d28rz98at9flks.cloudfront.net/ 104422/ Rec_104422_v3.pdf

9. Interim Otway Basin unconventional resource assessment, Canberra: Geoscience Australia, 2017, 82 p., URL: https://d28rz98at9flks.cloudfront.net/104440/ Rec_104440.pdf

10. Permskiy neftegazonosnyy basseyn (Permian oil and gas basin), In: Gornaya entsiklopediya (Mining encyclopedia), URL:  http://www.mining-enc.ru/p/permskij-neftegazonosnyj-bassejn/

11. Lukin A.E., Geophysical methods and the problem of unconventional natural gas sources detection (In Russ.), Geologichniy zhurnal, 2014, no. 1(346), pp. 722.

12. Schenk C.J., Tennyson M.E., Klett T.R. et al., Assessment of Tight-Gas Resources in Canyon Sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, USGS Report, 2016, URL: https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20163039, https://doi.org/10.3133/ fs20163039

13. Marra K.R., Gaswirth S.B., Christopher J. et al., Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry formation of the Midland basin, Permian basin province, Texas, USGS Report, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20173029

14. Punanova S.A., Vinogradova T.L., Peculiarities of geological reserves distribution through gas-and-oil bearing complexes of northern regions of West Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2008, no. 3, pp. 2030.

15. Punanova S.A., Shuster V.L., Ngo L.T., Peculiarities of geological structures, and oil and gas efficiency in Pre-Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia and the basement of Vietnam (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 1619, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-16-19 

16. Punanova S.A., Shuster V.L., A new approach to the prospects of the oil and gas bearing of deep-seated Jurassic deposits in the Western Siberia (In Russ.),  Georesursy, 2018, no. 2 (20), pp. 5865, https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.2018.2.67-80 

17. Punanova S.A., On the classification diversity of oil and gas trappers and geochemical criteria for the productivity of shale formations (In Russ.),  SOCAR Proceedings, 2021, no. 2, pp. 115, http://dx.doi.org/10.5510/OGP2021SI200538.

18. Fomin M.A., Saitov R.M., Section types and oil prospects of the Bazhenov formation in the Nadym-Ob interfluve (In Russ.),  Georesursy, 2020, no. 3 (22), pp. 211, DOI: 10.18599/grs.2020.3.2-11 

19. Koveshnikov A.E., Oil and gas reservoirs in the pre-Jurassic formations of the West Siberian geosyneclise (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2011, V. 319, no.  1, pp. 147151.

20. Ostroukhov O.B., Pronin N.V., Plotnikova I.N., Khayrtdinov R.K., A new method of "geochemical logging" for studying Domanic deposits (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2020, no. 3 (22), pp.  2837, DOI: 10.18599/grs.2020.3.28-37
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-10-13

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550.832
L.N. Khalilova (Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Azerbaijan, Baku), K.A. Kerimova (Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Azerbaijan, Baku)
Facies analysis of productive series sediments on the base of well logging data (on the example of the Pirallahi adasy field)

Keywords: productive series, facies analysis, sedimentation conditions, facies, log curves, reservoir

For a complete understanding of the oil and gas fields formation processes and correct choice of the direction of their search and exploration, facies-cyclical analysis is required. On the example of the Pirallahi adasy area, the possibility of using the logging facies technique for the facies-cyclic analysis of deposits of the productive series of the Early Pliocene is shown. The Pirallahi adasy field is located in the Absheron oil and gas region. The sandy horizons of the Kirmaky and Pre Kirmaky suites of the productive series are the main oil and gas bearing objects at the Pirallakhi adasy fiel. dGenetic studies of sandy reservoirs have been carried out. Alluvial deposits play an important role in the formation of oil and gas deposits. These deposits are developed within the coastal-marine conditions of sedimentation of sandy bodies, especially in the paleodelts. Non-anticlinal hydrocarbon traps are genetically related to the aforementioned sedimentation conditions. Prediction of changes in the main parameters of sand bodies-reservoirs as well as the choice of a rational system for the development of the field is possible only with accurate information on the origin of sand bodies. In this regard, the topic of the article devoted to the study of the conditions and environments of sedimentation of deposits of the productive series is very relevant. At present, well logging data are widely used to study the genesis of sedimentary rocks. The article shows the efficiency of using field geophysical data in the study of both lithological and facies variability of terrigenous deposits. In the process of research, data from electrical logging and X-ray logging were used, , on the basis of which the genesis of sandy reservoir bodies was determined.

References

1. Alikhanov E.N., Geologiya Kaspiyskogo morya (Geology of the Caspian Sea), Baku: Elm Publ., 1978, 190 p.

2. Alekseev V.P., Litologo-fatsial'nyy analiz (Lithofacial analysis), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of USMA, 2002, 147 p.

3. Maksimov E.M., Neftegazovaya litologiya (Oil and gas lithology), Tyumen': Publ. of TIU, 2016, 353 p.

4. Mamedov P.Z., Seysmostratigraficheskie issledovaniya geologicheskogo stroeniya osadochnogo chekhla Yuzhno-Kaspiyskoy megavpadiny v svyazi s perspektivami neftegazonosnosti (Seismostratigraphic studies of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover of the South Caspian megabasin in connection with the prospects of oil and gas potential): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Baku, 1992.

5. Seidov V.M., Khalilova L.N., Examples of reconstruction of productive strata depositional environment in Azerbaijan on the base of well logging data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 6266, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-62-66, URL: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-62-66

6. Gabdullin R.R., Kopaevich L.F., Ivanov A.V., Sekventnaya stratigrafiya (Sequential stratigraphy), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2008, pp. 94100.

7. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.

8. Shilov G.Ya., On the issue of genetic classification of rocks for facies interpretation of logging data (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski AzGNA, 1993, no. 6, pp. 10−14.

9. Shilov G.Ya., On the issue of assessing the type of genetic facies of carbonate rocks according to logging data (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2009, no. 7, pp. 16−23.

10. Shilov G.Ya., Dzhafarov I.S., Geneticheskie modeli osadochnykh i vulkanogennykh porod i tekhnologiya ikh fatsial'noy interpretatsii po geologo-geofizicheskim dannym (Genetic models of sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks and the technology of their facies interpretation based on geological and geophysical data), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIgeosistem, 2001, 394 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-14-18

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550.832:681.518
V.Yu. Rudenko (MiMGO CJSC, RF, Moscow), D.E. Gurentsov (MiMGO CJSC, RF, Moscow), M.E. Smirnova (MiMGO CJSC, RF, Moscow), P.Yu. Kulikov (MiMGO CJSC, RF, Moscow), S.S. Gavrilov (MiMGO CJSC, RF, Moscow)
Application of hierarchical classification methods in a final class space formation in the task of determining rock types using well logging data

Keywords: hierarchical clustering, solution tree, random forest, class space, machine learning, volumetric model, pre-Jurassic unit

One of the basic units of the geological model of the field is a classification of rocks (lithotypes or petrotypes) determined by logging data. At the same time, in complex formations in case of a wide variety of classes, logging data not always can help to distinguish them by properties. In practice, some classes have fairly close physical properties despite differences in genesis, structure and texture. In this case, it is necessary to form an optimal set of classes for their further prediction and using in a geological modeling. Under this article an attempt of solving this problem for the acid Permian-Triassic igneous rocks of Western Siberia was made using a combination of random forest machine learning algorithm and hierarchical clustering. While hierarchical clustering, the basic matrix of features was built taking into account a volumetric model that was calculated using hybrid technology (simultaneous linear algebraic equations and genetic algorithm). As a result, the integration of technologies made it possible to solve the problem of reducing the class space for its further prediction using logging data. As a confirmation of the reliability of the applied approaches, a comprehensive analysis of the results was carried out. Thus, the results are approved by the petrographic analysis of the core data that shows the similar material composition and similar mechanism of formation of united classes. In the article conclusions about the possibility of using machine learning algorithms to solve similar problems are stated.

References

1. Rudenko V.Yu., Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Aplication of stochastic model and genetic algorithms for multimineral modeling based on principle of petrophysical inversion (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2020, no. 6, pp. 1826.

2. Ward J.H., Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function, J. of the American Statistical Association, 1963, V. 58, pp. 236244.

3. Sneath P.H.A., Sokal R.R., Numerical taxonomy: The principles and practices of numerical classification, San-Francisco: Freeman, 1973, 573 p.

4. Bar-Joseph Z., Gifford D.K., Jaakkola T.S., Fast optimal leaf ordering for hierarchical clustering, 2001, DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/17.suppl_1.s22

5. Breiman L., Friedman J., Olshen R., Stone C.J., Classification and regression trees, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1984, 368 p.

6. Geurts P., Ernst D., Wehenkel L., Extremely randomized trees, Machine Learning, 2006, V. 63(1), pp. 342, DOI:10.1007/s10994-006-6226-1

7. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2021610214. GSPetrophysics,   Authors: Rudenko V.Yu., Priezzhev I.I.

8. Rudenko V.J., Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Application of genetic algorithms for multimineral modeling based on the principle of petrophysical inversion, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers - Conference Proceedings, Data Science in Oil & Gas, 2020, V. 2020, pp. 16, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202054015

9. Rudenko V.J. Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Application of hybrid combination technology genetic algorithm using well-log data for multimineral modeling with computing of changes in each mineral endpoint, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers Conference Proceedings, Geomodel, 2020, V. 2020, pp. 15, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202050083

10. Rudenko V.Yu., Gurentsov D.E., Gavrilov S.S., Smirnova M.E., Calculation of petrophysical inversion based on hybrid models in volcanic rocks of acidic com position of the pre-Jurassic complex of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2021, no. 4, pp. 4148.

 11. Ellanskiy M.M., Petrofizicheskie svyazi i kompleksnaya interpretatsiya dannykh promyslovoy geofiziki (Petrophysical relationships and complex interpretation of production geophysics data), Moscow: Nedra, 1978, 215 p.

12. Mitchell W.K., Nelson R.J., A practical approach to statistical log analysis, SPWLA 29thAnnual Logging Symposium, 1988, June 58.

13. Petrograficheskiy kodeks Rossii. Magmaticheskie, metamorficheskie, metasomaticheskie, impaktnye obrazovaniya (Petrographic Code of Russia. Igneous, metamorphic, metasomatic, impact formations), edited by Bogatikov O.A., Petrov O.V., Morozov A.F., St. Petersburg, Publ. of VSEGEI, 2009, 200 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-20-25

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550.8.028+550.8.055
R.K. Nepop (PetroGM LLC, RF, Novosibirsk; Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), N.Yu. Smirnov (PetroGM LLC, RF, Novosibirsk), V. Reyes Ahumada (PetroGM LLC, RF, Novosibirsk), M.A. Nizametdinova(PetroGM LLC, RF, Novosibirsk), A.G. Kolyagin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Complex bedding effect simulation for hydraulic fracture optimization based on geomechanical modeling

Keywords: Lutseyaskhskoe field; Achimov deposits; hydraulic fracture optimization; geomechanical modeling; core study; TIV- anisotropy; complex bedding effect

This paper presents the results of comprehensive studies on the Achimov deposits and overlaying clay horizons of Luceyakhskoe field, Western Siberia, aimed at hydraulic fracturing design and optimization. Multidisciplinary investigations included: core testing, 1D/3D Geomechanical modeling and their calibration to earlier hydraulic fracturing results and drilling events, and multivariate calculations of hydraulic fracturing designs. During the study, specific thin bedding was revealed in the silt-clayey sediments of the seal and interlayers. This rock structure is the main reason of differences in rock properties for both: vertical and horizontal directions. The physical and mechanical properties anisotropy of the geological environment can lead to a change in the minimum horizontal stresss values, which in turn, is one of the main factors that controls the hydraulic fracture geometry. The data correlation obtained within the framework of one project made possible to characterize the complex bedding barrier effect in the seal and interlayer deposits and to be accounted on hydraulic fracture design stage. It was shown that the complex bedding barrier effect has a significant impact on the fracture propagation during hydraulic fracturing. Ignoring this effect in the modeling leads to incorrect calculation of the fracture opening in hydraulic fracturing simulators. At the hydraulic fracturing design optimization, several scenarios were simulated for different combinations of the complex bedding intervals location, tonnage and horizonal boreholes depth. Additionally, the selection of the optimal buffer volume and injection rate was performed. As a result of the analysis of more than 1000 hydraulic fracturing design scenarios, 3 basic scenarios were selected for implementation at the Lutseyaskhskoe field, corresponding to different risk levels for an optimal decision making.

References

1. Punanova S.A., Hydrocarbon accumulations of Achimov sediments northern regions of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Ekcpozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2020, no. 3, pp. 1013.

2. Borodkin V.N., Kurchikov A.R., To the problem of refining the western and eastern boundaries of the Achimov clinoform complex (West Siberia) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2015, V. 56, no. 9, pp. 16301642.

3. Ali A.H.A., Brown T., Delgado R. et al., Watching rocks change-mechanical earth modeling (In Russ.), Oilfield Review, 2003, Summer, V. 15, pp. 2239.

4. Coussy O., Poromechanics, John Wiley and Sons, 2004, 315 p.

5. Fjar E., Holt R.M., Raaen A.M., Horsrud P., Petroleum related rock mechanics, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2009, V. 46, no. 8, pp. 13981399, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.04.012

6. Warpinski N., Fracture growth in layered and discontinuous media, Proceedings of the Technical Workshops for the Hydraulic Fracturing Study: Fate and Transport, Washington, DC: Environ. Prot. Agency, 2011.

7. Ju W., Wu C., Sun W., Effects of mechanical layering on hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs based on numerical models, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2018, no. 11(12), pp. 111, DOI: 10.1007/s12517-018-3693-1
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-26-31

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WELL DRILLING

622.245.42
K.A. Dzhabarov
Problems of selection and evaluation of plugging properties of cement slurries

Keywords: plugging properties, pore pressure of suspensions, wellbore leakage, initial filtration gradient, suspension suffusion coefficient

The author states that in order to solve the problem of behind-the-casing flows of liquids and gases, more information is needed on the plugging properties of cement slurries (PPCS) used in casing cementing. While waiting-on-cement time the hydrostatic pressure in the annular space decreases. This leads to the inflow of reservoir fluid into the well, the destruction of the still weak structure of the cement slurry and channeling formation. A list of PPCS criteria is proposed which are necessary and sufficient for assessing the intensity of filtration-suffusion flows and the state of integrity of the cement slurry structure. As a criterion of filtration properties, the so-called initial gradient is considered; it characterizes the conditions for the beginning of the pore fluid movement in the cement slurry. The second criterion is the characteristic of the beginning of the destruction of cement slurry solid skeleton by the filtration flow and the beginning of the channeling formation. Analysis of the methods for experimental evaluation of the indicated criteria has been carried out. It is shown that due to the instability of cement slurries properties it is fundamentally important to link the PPCS criteria to some characteristic time point. As such time point, the author proposes to use the end of repression on the formation - the beginning of the fluid inflow into the well. A description is given of several methods for determining the repression period. The most informative among these methods is the one that uses the dynamics of the pore pressure of cement slurries. A technique for obtaining pore pressure curves of cement slurries is recommended. This technique is suitable for use, including in industrial laboratories. A method for assessing the quality of reservoir isolation during the waiting-on-cement time and some methods for preventing behind-the-casing flows are presented.

References

1.  Levayn D.K. et al., Prevention of gas migration in the annulus of a cemented well (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i neftekhimiya za rubezhom, 1980, no. 10, pp. 8-17.

2. Oskarsen R.T.,Walzel D.,Wright J.W., Recommendations for advanced cementing methods (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2010, no. 4, pp.. 26-29.

3. Environmental technology in the oil industry: edited by Orszulik S.T., Dordrecht: Springer, 2016.

4. Gayvoronskiy A.A., Shul'ga G.P., Issledovanie tamponiruyushchikh svoystv tsementnykh rastvorov (Study of plugging properties of cement slurries), Collected papers Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii bureniya (Improvement of drilling technology), Publ. of VNIIBT, 1965, V. 14, pp. 7791.

5. Grachev V.V., Leonov E.G., Malevanskiy V.D., Pronitsaemost' skeleta stolba tsementnogo rastvora v period OZTs (Permeability of the skeleton of the cement mortar column during the WOC period), Collected papers Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy (Development and operation of gas and gas condensate fields), Publ. of VNIIEGazprom, 1970, no. 7, pp. 916.

6. Geranin M.P., Solov'ev E.M., Evaluation of plugging capacity of cement slurries (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1972, no. 2, pp. 47.

7. Khadur M.Kh., Formirovanie davleniya tsementnykh rastvorov v skvazhine v svyazi s gazoneftevodoproyavleniyami v period OZTs (The formation of pressure of cement mortars in the well in connection with the gas and oil showings during the WOC time): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1991.

8. Dzhabarov K.A., Mathematical modeling the processes of behind-casing fluid movement in the wells during waiting on cement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 6771, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-67-71

9. Shchishchenko R.I. et al., Studying the nature of gas occurrences after casing cementing (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1965, no. 9, pp. 7-11.

10. Fedorov V.N., Study the pore pressure drop in the cement solution (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 5, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Fedorov/Fedorov_1.pdf

11. Certificate of authorship no. 599051, Sposob opredeleniya germetiziruyushchey sposobnosti tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Method for determining the sealing ability of cement slurries), Authors: Grachev V.V., Malevanskiy V.D.

12. Grant W.H. et al., Simplified slurry design increases wellsite success,

SPE-16135-PA, 1989, DOI: 10.2118/16135-PA

13. Dzhabarov K.A., Metody opredeleniya porovogo davleniya i neftegazoizoliruyushchey sposobnosti tsementnykh rastvorov (Methods for determining pore pressure and oil and gas insulating ability of cement mortars), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIEgazprom, 1991, 24 p.

14. Certificate of authorship no. 1537796, Ustroystvo dlya opredeleniya porovogo davleniya i tamponiruyushchey sposobnosti tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Device for determination of pore pressure and plugging capacity of cement slurries), 1987, Author: K.A. Dzhabarov
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-32-36

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4:553.98.04
A.Kh. Shakhverdiev (Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State University for Geological Prospecting, RF, Moscow), S.V. Arefyev (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), A.V. Davydov (State Commission on Mineral Resources, RF, Moscow)
Problems of transformation of hydrocarbon reserves into an unprofitable technogenic hard-to-recover reserves category

Keywords: unprofitable technogenic hard-to-recover reserves, oil recovery, waterflooding, tax incentives, dynamics of discriminants for oil and water

Solving the problems of rational development and operation of oil fields, enhanced (EOR) and improved oil recovery (IOR), including the recovery of unprofitable natural and production induced hard-to-recover reserves of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons will long-term a significant and relevant objective. Scientists and experts in petroleum production, not only in the oil and gas industry, show great interest in the problems that cause conflicts between the owner of the subsoil and subsoil users or investors, in order to choose the optimal option of tax preferences for the maximize the oil production from unprofitable hard-to-recover reserves.

The article provides a brief chronology of the development of the oil and gas industry in the context of the evolution of new production, EOR and IOR methods, as well as the gradual transition from the development of conventional active to hard-to-recover reserves. The authors discuss topical problems of the oil fields development with unprofitable natural and technogenic hard-to-recover reserves of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. A new definition is proposed for unprofitable natural and production induced hard-to-recovery reserves; a new solution is given for predicting water breakthrough under conditions of instability of the of oil displacement front. It points out the shortcomings of the current Tax Code provisions regarding the justified methodology of geological and technological parameters for selecting unprofitable man-made hard-to-recovery reserves, and suggests ways to improve the necessary solutions. It is noted that the dealing with negative consequences of the reservoir and injected water impact on the mobility of non-stationary waterflooding and the resulting oil immobility and also impact on the process of field development in general is noted. The expediency of creating of EOR/IOR innovative technologies for depleted fields and successful application at development sites is shown, which requires tax preferences for creators of scientific and technical products. Thus, it has been shown that the development of unprofitable natural and man-made unprofitable hard-to-recover reserves is an urgent, demanded and long-term task, the solution of which requires a systematic approach that ensures the harmonization of geological, technological, economic and regulatory parameters and indicators to justify the choice of objects falling under the benefits and assess the expected effect.

References

1. Rozman M.S., Smolyak S.A., Zakirov E.S. et al., On the feasibility study for the extraction of hard-to-recover reserves: how not to step on an old rake (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2020, no. 2(98).

2. Vilenskiy P.L., Livshits V.N., Smolyak S.A., Otsenka effektivnosti investitsionnykh proektov: Teoriya i praktika (Evaluation of the effectiveness of investment projects: Theory and practice), Moscow: Delo Publ., 2015, 1300 p.

3.  Shpurov I.V., Tudvachev A.V., Justification of the boundary values of permeability reservoirs in their differentiation into classes with high and low filtration potential (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 7377.

4. Vygon G., Inventory of reserves: from state expertise to national audit (In Russ.),  Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2019, no. 18/19, pp. 1924.

5. Davydov A.V., On methods for increasing oil recovery and not only about them (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2019, no. 12, pp. 124133.

6. Davydov A.V., Analiz i prognoz razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey (Analysis and forecast of the development of oil deposits), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2008, 316 p.

7. Alekperov V.Yu., Nam ne nuzhny l'goty, u nas net l'got (We don't need perks, we don't have perks), Kommersant, 25.12.2019, no. 238.

8. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., System optimization of non-stationary floods for the purpose of increasing oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 4450, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-1-44-49

9. 9. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Sistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of oil field development process), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 452 p.

10. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Dinamicheskie protsessy v neftegazodobyche: sistemnyy analiz, diagnoz, prognoz (Dynamic processes in the oil and gas production: systems analysis, diagnosis, prognosis), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p. 

11. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological basis for EOR optimization), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.

12.  Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Once again about oil recovery factor (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 4448.

13. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Mandrik I.E., Aref'ev S.V., Alternative concept of monitoring and optimization water flooding of oil reservoirs in the conditions of instability of the displacement front (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 118123, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-118-123

14. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Some conceptual aspects of systematic optimization of oil field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 5863, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-58-63

15. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Aref'ev S.V., The concept of monitoring and optimization of oil reservoirs waterflooding under the conditions of displacement front instability (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 11, pp. 104109, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-11-104-109

16. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Qualitative analysis of quadratic polynomial dynamical systems associated with the modeling and monitoring of oil fields, Lobachevskii journal of mathematics, 2019, V. 40, no. 10, pp. 16951710, DOI:10.1134/S1995080219100226

17. Shestopalov Y. V., Shakhverdiev A. Kh., Qualitative theory of two-dimensional polynomial dynamical systems, MDPI, Symmetry, 2021, no. 13, V. 1884, pp. 119, https: // doi.org / 10.3390 /sym13101884.

18. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 356 of June 14, 2016 (as amended by order No. 638 of September 20, 2019) Ob utverzhdenii pravil razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (On the approval of the rules for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420365257

19. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation dated May 18, 2016 No. 12-r Ob utverzhdenii Vremennykh metodicheskikh rekomendatsiy po podgotovke tekhnicheskikh proektov po razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (On approval of Temporary guidelines for the preparation of technical projects for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420368869

20. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 639 dated 20.09.19 Ob utverzhdenii pravil podgotovki tekhnicheskikh proektov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (On the approval of the rules for the preparation of technical projects for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/561372501

21. Mukhidinov Sh.V., Belyakov E.O., Determination of mobile water in reservoirs of Achimov thickness (In Russ.), Proneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 4(18), pp. 3447.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-38-43

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622.276.64
D. Popic (NTC NIS-Naftagas, Serbia, Novi Sad), J. Pantic (NTC NIS-Naftagas, Serbia, Novi Sad), M. Tripkovic (NTC NIS-Naftagas, Serbia, Novi Sad), A.P. Losev (RTE Nedra-Test LLC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Influence of reservoir mineralogy on oil recovery during polymer flooding

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery (EOR), polymer flooding, wettability alteration, reservoir mineralogy, carbonate content, core filtration study

As a part of a preparation for field application of polymer flooding with HPAM at 20 mPac viscosity, series of core flood tests were carried out to determine resistance modification, residual resistance factor and retention factor. Tests were performed with actual core samples taken from reservoir, which is a fine to medium sandstone. In terms of permeability, the reservoir is highly heterogeneous so the samples were divided in 3 groups high, medium and low permeability. It was expected that values of measured parameters would be more or less dependent on permeability, however, some of the results obtained did not correspond to this trend. When mineral composition of core samples was analyzed it was noticed that some samples have carbonate content up to 70%, while having values of porosity and permeability in the same range as other sandstone samples with low carbonate content. General dependence of experimental results on permeability and carbonate content was established. Further, since carbonates have different wettability characteristic than silicates, a concept of combining Smart Water technology and polymer flooding was tested on samples with high carbonate content. Combined treatment resulted in additional 5% of oil recovery when compared with proper polymer flooding.

References

1. Ferreira V.H.S., Moreno R.B.Z.L., Rheology-based method for calculating polymer inaccessible pore volume in core flooding experiments, Proceedings of E3S Web Conf. Vol. 89 (The 2018 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts SCA 2018), 2019, DOI:10.1051/e3sconf/20198904001

2. Thomas A., Essentials of polymer flooding technique,  John Wiley and sons Ltd., 328 p.

3. Sameer A.H., Syed M.M., Hesham A., Saeed A., An overview on polymer retention in porous media, Energies, 2018, V. 11, no. 10, p. 2751, DOI: 10.3390/en11102751

4. Seright R., How much polymer should be injected during a polymer flood? Review of previous and current practices, Conference Proceedings. IOR 2017 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, April 2017, DOI:10.2118/179543-MS

5. Sorbie K.S., Polymer-improved oil recovery, Dordrecht (Netherlands): Springer, 1991, 359 p.

6. Austard T., Water-based EOR in carbonates and sandstones: New Chemical understanding of the EOR potential using Smart Water, Chapter 13 in book: Enhanced oil recovery field cases, edited by Sheng J., Houston (TX, USA): Gulf Professional Publishing, 2013, 712 r., DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-386545-8.00013-0

7. Ethington E.F., Interfacial contact angle measurements of water, mercury, and 20 organic liquids on quartz, calcite, biotite, and Ca-montmorillonite substrates, Golden (CO, USA): U.S. Geological Survey, 1990, 18 p.

8. Broseta D., Medjahed F., Lecourtier J., Robin M., Polymer adsorption/Retention in porous media: Effects of core wettability on residual oil, SPE 24149-PA, 1995, DOI:10.2118/24149-PA

9. Rezaei Gomari K.A., Hamouda A.A., Effect of fatty acids, water composition and pH on the wettability alteration of calcite surface, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2006, V. 50, pp. 140150.

10. Ahmadi S., Hosseini M., Tangestani E., Mousavi S.E., Niazi M., Wettability alteration and oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of smart water and surfactants into carbonates, Petroleum Science, 2020, V. 17, pp. 712721, DOI: 10.1007/s12182-019-00412-1

11. Evdokimov I.N., Nanozhidkosti i umnye zhidkosti v tekhnologiyakh razrabotki neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Nanofluids and smart fluids in oil and gas field development technologies), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2016, 247 p.

12. Fathi S.J., Austad T., Strand S., Water-based enchanced oil recovery (EOR) by smart water: Optimal ionic composition for EOR in carbonates, Energy and Fuels, 2011, no. 25(11), pp. 51735179, DOI:10.1021/ef201019k

13. Antoniadi D.G., Savenok O.V., Bukov N.N. et al., The possibility of using low-salinity water for increasing oil fields in Krasnodar region (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 2014, no. 8, pp. 331339.

14. Shokoufeh A., Behzad R., An investigation of polymer adsorption in porous media using pore network modeling, Transport in Porous Media, 2016, V. 115, pp. 169187, DOI:10.1007/s11242-016-0760-5
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-44-48

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622.276.1/.4
M.A. Jamalbayov (SOCAR OilGasScientificResearchProject Institute, Baku, Azerbaijan), T.M. Jamalbayli (Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan)
Determination of reservoir properties of elastic gas condensate formations based on two field measurements at a steady-state inflow

Keywords: initial permeability, reservoir compacting, permeability change law, two-phase filtration, interpretation, well-testing, permeability change factor

A method is proposed for interpreting the results of gas condensate well test data in two steady-state regime in order to determine the initial value of the reservoir effective permeability and its change factor. The described technique was developed on the basis of a binary filtration model, where the hydrocarbon system is represented as consisting of two pseudo-components and two phases, between the phases there is a mass transfer of hydrocarbons. To apply the proposed methodology, well production data is required, measured at two different steady-state well conditions for two different reservoir pressures. The technique has been tested on the example of PVT production data for the horizon X of the Bulla-Deniz field (Azerbaijan) at different compacting factors of reservoir rocks. The high reliability of the described method has been established. At the initial stages of development, the deviation of the calculated values of the considered parameters from their actual values did not reach 1%. And at later periods, i.e. when the reservoir pressure falls below than 80%, the deviations of the calculated initial permeability and permeability change factor were 2.3 and 4.6%, respectively. Unlike similar methods, the proposed approach is based on the idea of linear approximation. This made it possible to minimize the input data (the number of measurements) and at the same time increased the reliability of interpretation by eliminating the subjectivity factor. The proposed method is simple and reliable, as evidenced by the test results. It is easy to use in a computer, which is not unimportant when automating the process of interpreting measurement results.

References

1. AbasovM.T., Orudjaliev F.G., Djamalbekov M.A., Scientific basis gas condensate reservoirs development in deformed reservoir rocks, Proceedings of the II Symposium on Mining Chemistry, Visegrad, 1986, 2224 October, pp. 187206.

2. Aliev F.A., Jamalbayov M.A., Hasanov I.R. et al., Mathematical modeling of the nonlinear filtration process of volatile oils to a well in a compacting formation, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on control and optimization with industrial applications, 2018, V. II, pp. 5961.

3. Dubrule, O., Haldorsen, H.H., Geostatistics for permeability estimation, In: Reservoir characterization: edited by Lake L.W.,  Caroll H.B. Jr., New York: Academic Press, 1986.

4. Farshidi S., Yu D.F., Slade J. et al., Permeability estimation from inflow data during underbalanced drilling, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2008, June, V. 47, no. 6, pp. 5663.

5. Guo Junxin, Estimation of permeability and viscoelastic properties of shale by three-point bending test, SEG Annual Meeting, 18-23 October 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2015.

6. Angeles R., Torres-Verdin C., Lee H.-J. et al., Estimation of permeability and permeability anisotropy from straddle-packer formation-tester measurements based on the physics of two-phase immiscible flow and invasion, SPE-95897-PA, 2007.

7. Wendt W.A., Sakurai S., Nelson P.H., Permeability prediction from well logs using multiple regression in lake, New York: Academic Press, 1986.

8. Gorbunov A.T., Razrabotka anomal'nykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of abnormal oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 237 p.

9. Khasanov M.M., Spivak S.I., Yulmukhametov D.R., Permeability determination from log data as an incorrectly set problem (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, V. 3, no. 1, pp. 155166.

10. Shor Ya.B., Statisticheskie metody analiza i kontrolya kachestva i nadezhnosti (Statistical methods of analysis and quality and reliability control), Moscow: Publ. of Gosenergoizdat, 1962, 552 p.

11. Hasanov I.R., Jamalbayov M.A., A stationary oil inflow to the wellbore taking into account the initial pressure gradient, Arab J Geosci., 2020, V. 13, no. 833, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05868-9, https://rdcu.be/b6o5x

12. Jamalbayov M.A., Veliyev N.A., The technique of early determination of reservoir drive of gas condensate and velotail oil deposits on the basis of new diagnosis indicators, TWMS J. Pure Appl. Math., 2017, V.8, no. 2, pp. 236250.

13. Denney D., HP/HT gas-condensate well testing for the Shell Onyx SW Prospect, JPT, 2008, V. 60I, no. 2,  https://doi.org/10.2118/0208-0088.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-49-53

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:622.276
A.A. Kiryanov (Gazpromneft-Automation LLC, RF, Noyabrsk), M.I. Kuzmin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Actual tasks of metrological support in the oil and gas industry

Keywords: unmanned fields, digital technologies, metrological support, innovations, artificial lift, autonomous assets

The need for further development of digital technologies and the need for a wider application of these technologies for process control has already become obvious. Digital technologies are at the heart of projects for the development of autonomous assets implemented by Gazprom Neft. However, their widespread use is impossible without solving the problem of ensuring the uniformity of measurements. In the presented work, the issues of metrological support of digital technologies from the point of view of the current legislation of the Russian Federation are considered. The review considered the priorities of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, as well as the tasks facing Gazprom Neft to achieve its strategic goals and the already existing experience in the use of digital technologies. The process of artificial lift was chosen as the subject of research. Using this process as an example, the main barriers inherent in digital models and preventing their active dissemination are considered. During the study, it was found that digital models belong to management models and based on this, goals were determined to eliminate the identified barriers. The list of tasks necessary to achieve the set goals has been defined. To do this, an analysis of the current regulatory and technical documentation in the field of metrology was carried out and options for solving the problem of ensuring the uniformity of measurement for digital models were considered. The review considered the need to apply existing forms of state regulation in the field of ensuring the uniformity of measurements to minimize the need for amendments to the current legislation of the Russian Federation.

In the future, based on solutions developed within the framework of ongoing research on metrological support of digital models of technological operations, Gazprom Neft will develop a concept of metrological support of digital models, which will allow these solutions to be replicated in the perimeter of the Company, and the results obtained will serve as the basis for the formation of a unified state concept for ensuring the uniformity of measurement of digital models of various technological processes from metrological examination to determination of metrological characteristics of digital models.

References

1. Orlov S., Digital platform. Strategy for digital transformation of oil refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2018, no. 4, pp. 4045.

2. Besekerskiy V.A., Teoriya sistem avtomaticheskogo upravleniya (Theory of automatic control systems), St. Petersburg: Professiya Publ., 2007, 752 .

3. Perkins T.K., Critical and subcritical flow of multiphase mixtures through chokes, SPE-20633-PA, 1993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/20633-PA

4. Gerasimov R.V., Muzychuk P.S., Kuz'min M.I., Digital transformation of the mechanized oil production process at Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2021, no. 7, pp. 3841.

5. Kir'yanov A.A., Aktual'nye tseli i zadachi metrologii v neftegazodobyvayushchey otrasli v epokhu tsifrovizatsii (Actual goals and objectives of metrology in the oil and gas industry in the era of digitalization), Proceedings of XXII All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics Transformatsiya nerazrushayushchego kontrolya i tekhnicheskoy diagnostiki v epokhu tsifrovizatsii. Obespechenie bezopasnosti obshchestva v izmenyayushchemsya mire (Transformation of non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics in the era of digitalization. Ensuring the safety of society in a changing world), Moscow, March, 35, 2020, Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2020, pp. 205207.

6. Kuz'min M.I., Kibirev E.A., Zatsepin A.Yu., Klinov E.V., Unmanned oil field: Present and the future (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 1, pp. 64 68, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2020-1-64-68
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-54-59

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.72
N.A. Cheremisin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Struchkov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of wax deposits on the tubing wall

Keywords: magnetic field, electric field, wax crystallization, wax deposition, organic scales, magnetic treatment, magnetic unit, inter-cleaning period, mass exchange, mathematical model

The field experience with application of various methods of prevention and remediation of wax deposition in tubing has shown that none of the methods provides 100 % protection and each need to be duplicated by other methods with the exception of using electrical heating and scrapers. Among the prevention methods of wax deposition, the magnetic treatment of oil using magnetic devices of various designs is quite effective and simple in production and handling. Over the past decades, a great experience on using the magnetic treatment on production fluids has been gained. At the same time, not all observed phenomena and effects have a rigorous explanation. This paper discusses the effect of a magnetic field on the wax deposits; an analytical model has been developed to quantify the wax deposition rate on the tubing surface during magnetic treatment of the upstream. It has been established that the passage of the oil flow through a non-uniform magnetic field causes a high-intensity electric field for a sufficiently long period of time, the effect of which decreases the solubility of wax in oil, increases the intensity of wax crystallization in the volume of oil and reduces the wax deposition on the tubing surface. The model takes into account that the presence of wax deposits on the tubing surface is a highly efficient heat insulator that changes the temperature regime of the flow and the temperature of the tubing wall. A method for calculating the equilibrium concentration of wax and changing in the solubility of wax in oil as a result of the influence of a constant electric field has been developed. It has been shown that the effect of magnetic treatments rises with the increase in the concentration of asphaltenes in oil and water cut.

References

1. Cheremisin N.A., Issledovanie mekhanizma obrazovaniya parafinogidratnykh probok v neftyanykh skvazhinakh s tsel'yu sovershenstvovaniya metodov bor'by s nim (Study of the mechanism of formation of paraffin hydrate plugs in oil wells in order to improve methods of dealing with it): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen, 1992.

2. Pivovarova N.A., Magnitnye tekhnologii dobychi i pererabotki uglevodorodnogo syr'ya. Obzornaya informatsiya (Magnetic technologies for extraction and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials. Overview information), Moscow: Publ. of Gazpromekspo, 2009, 120 p.

3. Shchekhovtseva E.V., Roman'ko V.V., Kim S.L., Relevance of application of magnetic inductors use when operating a complicated fund of wells (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 3, pp. 5258.

4. Leont'ev A.Yu., Poletaeva O.V. et al., Magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of heavy highly viscous oils (In Russ.), Neftegazokhimiya, 2019, no. 34, pp. 1822.

5. Zlobin A.A., The mechanism of magnetic activation of oil for well protection against asphaltene deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 5256.

6. Lesin V.I., Eremin N.A., The natural and synthesized nanoscale iron oxides - nanobots in the control processes of the production, the transportation, the preparation and the refining of oil by using the magnetic field (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz.Novatsii, 2018, no. 1, pp. 1822.

7. Patent RU 2 623 758 C1, Blast-hole magnetic complex for formation fluid processing in bottom-hole zone, Inventor: Soldatova I.P.

8. Fedorov E.E., Razrabotka metodov ponizheniya vyazkosti nefti i deparafinizatsii promyslovykh truboprovodov s ispol'zovaniem elektricheskogo polya (Development of methods for reducing the viscosity of oil and dewaxing field pipelines using an electric field): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ivano-Frankovsk, 1982.

9. Malyshev A.G., Cheremisin N.A., Shevchenko G.V., Choosing the best ways to control of paraffin-hydrate formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 9, pp. 6269.

10. Apasov T.K., Apasov G.T., Sarancha A.V., Fighting with deposits AFS, salts and corrosion by the application of magnetic activators (In Russ.), Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2015, no. 2-2, pp. 6666.

11. Loskutova Yu.V., Yudina N.V., Influence of a magnetic field on the structural-rheological properties of oils (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2006, V. 309, no. 4, pp. 104109.

12. Patent US5024271A, Permanent-magnet wax-proof device, Inventor: Meihua W.

13. Gupalo Yu.P., Polyanin A.D., Ryazantsev Yu.S., Massoobmen reagiruyushchikh chastits s potokom (Mass transfer of reacting particles with the flow), Mocsow: Nauka Publ., 1985, 336 p.

14. Lifshits E.M., Pitaevskiy L.P., Fizicheskaya kinetika (Physical kinetics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 528 p.

15. Reid R.C., Prausnitz J.M., Sherwood T.K., The properties of gases and liquids, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.

16. Frolov Yu.G., Kurs kolloidnoy khimii (Colloid chemistry course), M.: Khimiya, 1989.  464 s.

17. Rumer Yu.B., Ryvkin M.Sh., Termodinamika. Staticheskaya fizika i kinetika (Thermodynamics. Static physics and kinetics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1977, 552 p.

18. Tronov V.P., Mekhanizm obrazovaniya smolo-parafinovykh otlozheniy i bor'ba s nimi (Mechanism of formation of resin-paraffin deposits and its control), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 192 p.

19. Chernov A.A., Trusov L.M., Electrostatic effects during the formation of nuclei on the surface (In Russ.), RNTS VNIIOENG, 1979, no. 5, pp. 35.

20. Markhasin I.L., Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika neftyanogo plasta (Physical and chemical mechanics of an oil reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 214 p.

21. Vakhitov G.G., Simkin E.M., Ispol'zovanie fizicheskikh poley dlya izvlecheniya nefti iz plastov (Using physical fields to extract oil from reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 230 p.

22. Medvedev V.F., Sbor i podgotovka neustoychivykh emul'siĭ na promyslakh (Gathering and preparation of unstable emulsions in the fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 144 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-60-65

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622.276.53
A.A. Makeev (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut; Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), S.A. Leontev (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), D.V. Shelokov (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), E.L. Shay (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), S.I. Martynov (Surgut State University, RF, Surgut)
Analysis of the parameters of the marginal wells operation using electric submersible pumps units

Keywords: periodic well operation, salt deposits, electric submersible pump (ESP), complicating factors, model

The article describes the marginal wells operation using electric submersible pumps ESP units. Various models of periodic operation based on telemetry are described. The study of periodic operation models enables quick choice of the operating mode of the ESP units. The following models are given as an example: that determine the need to transfer wells with a low-productivity ESP units to a periodic operation mode, periodic well operation model with an active leak of check valve (turbine rotation), long-term downtime well model operating in a periodic mode. The types of periodic operation and technical and economic indicators of marginal wells are presented. The features of short-term periodic well operation mode are considered. The geological and technological factors influencing the transfer of wells to the periodic operation mode are indicated. Mitigation measures for a periodic operation well model with active valve leak are described. These measures are aimed to reduce the effect of liquid draining from the tubing on the launch of an electric centrifugal pump. The geological and physical features of deposits with hard-to-recover reserves significantly affect the operation of wells with ESP units. An increase in the number of wells operated in a periodic mode requires much more time to evaluate the effectiveness of the equipment. Automation of the process of determining wells being in periodic operation together with the possibility of optimizing their work will increase oil production, reduce energy consumption and specific electricity consumption of the ESP units.

References

1. Tsivelev K.V., Operation of wells in the mode of periodic short-term switching on and development of recommendations for optimizing the operation of the electric centrifugal pump unit (In Russ.), Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnykh i rudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh, 2015, no. 4, pp. 180183.

2. Zeygman Yu.V., Kolonskikh A.V., Optimization of ESP operation to prevent complications (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 2, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Zeigman/Zeigman_1.pdf.

3. Makeev A.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Complications during the operation of wells of high-temperature deposits in the Oktyabrsky region (Krasnolensky arch) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 42-44, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-42-44

4. Kibirev E.A., Muzychuk P.S., Optimization of protection against emergency shutdown in the control station of submersible pumps at the fields of Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2018, no. 3(9), pp. 5662, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2018-3-56-62
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-66-68

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.276.8
.. Maryutina (Petroleum Studies and Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the RAS, RF, Moscow), Yu.N. Romanova (Petroleum Studies and Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the RAS, RF, Moscow), N.S. Musina (Petroleum Studies and Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the RAS, RF, Moscow)
Assessment of magnetic and ultrasonic treatment efficiency for the complete destruction of field water-in-oil emulsions

Keywords: water-in-oil emulsion, demulsification, wave action, permanent magnetic field, electromagnetic field, ultrasound, nanopowder

The methods based on wave processing by fields of different physical nature (magnetic field, electromagnetic field, ultrasonic vibrations, etc.) are gaining increasing importance for the destruction of stable water-in-oil emulsions. In the article the possibility of complete destruction of field water-in-oil emulsions formed during oil production by using magnetic and ultrasonic treatment is shown. The results of experimental studies of the influence of various parameters of wave treatment and of additives of various solvents and nanosized metal powders on the completeness of demulsification of stable field water-in-oil emulsions of various compositions, including those containing "gel", are presented. Original methods of destruction of field water-in-oil emulsions with a degree of water separation more than 99% and residual water content in the oil phase less than 1 wt. % are proposed. For water-in-oil emulsions of the inverse type, these results are achieved by using magnetic treatment in a flow mode, for gel-containing water-in-oil emulsions by ultrasonic treatment in combination with a nanosized additive in a static or flow mode. As a nanosized additive, it is proposed to use a suspension of aluminum nitride nanopowder in acetone (6-8% of the emulsion volume, depending on the "gel" content), or a suspension of aluminum oxide nanopowder in acetonitrile (10% of the emulsion volume, regardless of the "gel" content). The advantage of aluminum nitride nanopowder is the possibility of its reuse with retention of activity up to 10 cycles. The prototype of a pilot unit of wave action with ultrasonic and magnetic blocks for processing emulsions to implement the proposed methods of demulsification in oil fields is presented.

References

1. Kosmacheva T.F., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Research of demulsifiers ability to formation of anomalously stable structures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 1, pp. 9092.

2. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO VNIIOENG, 2005, 324 p.

3. Zolfaghari R., Fakhrul-Razi A., Abdullah L.C. et al., Demulsification techniques of water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions in petroleum industry, Separation and Purification Technology, 2016, V. 170, pp. 377407, DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2016.06.026

4. Levchenko D.N., Bergshteyn N.V., Khudyakova A.D., Niko N.M., Emul'sii nefti s vodoy i metody ikh razrusheniya (Oil-water emulsion and methods for their destruction), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1967, 200 p.

5. Tarasov M.Yu., The main technological solutions used in the design of oil treatment facilities at the fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 7, pp. 2630.

6. Romanova Yu.N., Musina N.S., Maryutina T.A., The impact of different types of wave action on the destruction of stable gel-containing water-oil emulsions (In Russ.), Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov, 2018, V. 84, no. 7, pp. 715, DOI: 10.26896/1028-6861-2018-84-7-7-15

7. Romanova Y.N., Maryutina T.A., Musina N.S. et al., Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions by exposure to magnetic field, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 2019, V. 179, pp. 600605, DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2019.05.002

8. Patent RU 2 712 589 C1, Method for destruction of highly stable water-oil emulsions, Inventors: Romanova Yu.N., Musina N.S., Maryutina T.A., Trofimov D.A.

9. Sofla M.J.D., Norouzi-Apourvari S., Schaffie M., The effect of magnetic field on stability of conventional and pickering water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilized with fumed silica and iron oxide nanoparticles, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2020, V. 314, DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2020.113629

10. Hippmann S., Ahmed S.S., Frohlich P., Bertau M., Demulsification of water/crude oil emulsion using natural rock Alginite, Colloids Surf. A., 2018, V. 553, pp. 7179, DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2018.05.031

11. Patent RU 2 721 955 C1, Wave action device for oil stock preparation, Inventors: Musina N.S., Romanova Yu.N., Maryutina T.A., Trofimov D.A.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-70-73

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622.276.8
K.S. Fot (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), O.V. Isupova (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), A.S. Avvakumova (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), S.P. Chirkova (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), N.A. Baryshev (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), P.N. Mikhailov (Udmurtneft OJSC, RF, Izhevsk)
The effect of aluminum hydrochloride as a the reagent for cleaning & clarification of natural waters on the processes of oil desalination and dehydration

Keywords: aluminum hydrochloride, desalination and dehydration of oil, intermediate layer, demulsification, clarification and purification of natural waters, deterioration of oil preparation, aluminum-asphaltene complexes

The basic process of preparing fresh water using aluminum hydrochloride is considered. The negative effect of a coagulating reagent on dehydration and desalination during primary oil preparation is shown. It has been laboratory-confirmed that an increased content of suspended particles in suppressed fresh water for desalination naturally worsens the residual water content in oil. It was noted that the presence of the coagulant hydroxyl chloride aluminum increases the residual water content in the oil, however, the content of chloride salts decreases. It is assumed that the determination of chloride salts using the titrimetric method according to GOST 21534-76 (method A) is affected by the presence of aluminum ions. The formation of heavy aluminum-asphaltene complexes from the point of view of chemical structural interactions is raised. The aluminum ions included in the composition of asphaltene compounds are able to capture water molecules and concentrate on the oil-water interface, subsequently forming intermediate layers in technological devices and thereby impair the preparation of oil. During laboratory and field tests, it was found that in the spring flood period, in order to achieve standard indicators for the residual content of water and chloride salts in oil, it is necessary to change the water treatment technology. The use of fresh water after its additional static sludge in reinforced concrete tanks for 8 hours (an increase in sludge time due to available production facilities), as well as strict adherence to the coagulant dosage in the range of 50-60 ppm allow us to achieve standard oil performance in 1 quality group according to GOST R 51858-2002.

References

1. Tuzhilin A.S., Layner Yu.A., Surova L.M., Physicochemical properties of aluminum hydroxychlorides of various basicity (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya, 2007, no. 2, pp. 1823.

2. Muravlenko S.V., Artem'ev V.N., Khisamutdinov N.I. et al., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil field development), Part 3, edited by Khisamutdinov N.I., Ibragimov G.Z., Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1994, 49 p.

3. Wang J., Fan T., Buckley J.S., Creek J.L., Impact of water cut on asphaltene deposition tendency, Proceedings of Offshore Technology Conference, 2014, DOI: 10.4043/25411-MS

4. Grijalva-Monteverde H., Arellano-Tanori O.V., Valdez M.A., Zeta potential and langmuir films of asphaltene polar fractions, Energy & Fuels, 2005, no. 19, pp. 24162422, DOI: 10.1021/ef050120y
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-74-77

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4.01:539.4
A.A. Ignatik (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Inclinometric measurements on the pipeline to assess its stress-strain state in laboratory conditions

Keywords: , , , - (),

To ensure reliability of the main pipeline during operation it is necessary assessing the strength of the pipeline that is subjected by a complex of loads. The stress-strain state monitoring of the pipeline contributes to the solution of this problem since the values of stresses (strains) obtained during monitoring are the initial data for pipe strength calculations. Continuous assessment and monitoring of the stress-strain state is especially necessary for main pipelines laid in difficult geological and engineering conditions. Various methods are known either for assessing the pipeline stress-strain state that consist of determining the spatial position of the main pipeline and further calculating the stress-strain state components or in directly measuring stresses or strains by some physical method. It is important that the method provides continuous pipeline monitoring.

In this article, an inclinometric technology is proposed to determine the spatial position and curvature of the main pipeline. The technology was tested in laboratory conditions on the bench that is a pipe installed on two supports. The laboratory bench allows loading the pipe with a bending force in the vertical plane. In the experiments, a portable digital inclinometer was used, it measures inclination angles of the pipe during bending. Plots of the tangent of the inclination angle, deformation and curvature of the upper, lateral and lower pipe zones are obtained. Therefore, the inclinometric method is effective. The data of inclinometric measurements allow calculating the components of the pipeline stress-strain state according to known formulas. Guidance on implementation of inclinometric technology in practice for monitoring the pipeline stress-strain state including specifying the installation location of inclinometric sensors on the pipeline is given. Inclinometric sensors provide continuous monitoring of the main pipeline position and assessment of its stress-strain state.

References

1. Islamov R.R., Aginey R.V., Isupova E.V., Analysis of ways and methods of monitoring the stressed state of underground oil and gas pipelines, working in complicated engineering-geological conditions (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2017, no. 6, pp. 3140.

2. Feodos'ev V.I., Soprotivlenie materialov (Strength of materials), Moscow: Publ. of MSTU named after N.E.Bauman, 1999, 592 p.

3. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Urmancheev S.F., Kapaev R.A., Assessment the readiness of the well for pipeline pulling during the construction of underwater crossing  (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 5, pp. 470478, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-5-470-478

4. Ignatik A.A., Stress-strain state characteristics of pipeline wall under the internal pressure, bending, and torsion (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2020, no. 4, pp. 102107.

5. Aginey R.V. et al., Development of the mathematical model for assessing the optimal measurement step when surveying the depth of the underground pipeline from the ground (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, pp. 4, pp. 364371, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-4-364-371

6. Kuz'bozhev A.S., Birillo I.N., Berdnik M.M., Investigation of the stress-strain state of the pipeline in the area of single dent and dent interacting with metal loss defect (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2018, no. 4, pp. 4349, DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180400369

7. Islamov R.R., Sovershenstvovanie sistemy monitoringa tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya protyazhennykh uchastkov magistral'nykh neftegazoprovodov primeneniem volokonno-opticheskikh sensorov deformatsii (Improving the monitoring system for the technical condition of long sections of oil and gas pipelines using fiber-optic strain sensors): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ukhta, 2018. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-78-82

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622.692.4.004.55
V.V. Lykov (Grozny State Oil Technical University named after acad. M.D. Millionshchikov, RF, Grozny)
Technology for removing salt and paraffin sediments in open pipelines of complex configuration

Keywords: pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharge (PAED), shock wave, oil pipeline cleaning, pipeline cleaning, solid salt deposits, asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits

Among the physical methods for removing and preventing the formation of solid salt (SSD) and asphalten-resin-paraffin (ARPD) deposits, a special place occupy technologies based on an electro-hydraulic blow, which occurs during electrical discharge in the liquid and initiates powerful acoustic shock waves - the electro-hydraulic effect. Despite the obvious energy benefits, this method has not found wide use due to a number of limitations. The article discusses the technology of the destruction of SSD and ARPD in an open pipeline of any configuration and length with the help of electro-hydraulic discharge, free of such limitations. When this technology is applied, the destruction of salt and paraffin sediments inside the pipe occurs as a result of the impact of the shock wave on its outer wall. The shock wave is created by the electro-hydraulic discharge outside the pipe in a special tube with water, which is placed on any section of the pipeline and promoted as it is purified. The technology can be used to eliminate any deposits (SSD, ARPD, hydrates, ice, cement stone, and soft sediments). It is shown that the technology allows you to remove the SSD, ARPD in any open pipelines with a diameter of 40-600 mm with an unlimited number of turns, vertical or horizontal position, the presence of couplings, valves, valves and other fittings of the pipeline; ensure the safety of the inner and outer surfaces of the pipes, including special coatings; remove SSD in polymer pipes without damaging them; clean pipes with any (even 100%) degree of overlapping by postponement of the pipeline cross-section, etc. Examples of technology application  for cleaning various types of pipes are given.

References

1. Persiyantsev M.N., Dobycha nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production in complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 653 p.

2. Puchina G.R., Ragulin V.V., Telin A.G. et al., Modern practice of salt deposition preventing and removing (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 7280, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2020-2-72-80

3. Baranov A.N., Kutovenko M.V., Yanyushkin S.A., Korenyugin K.V., Electromechanical cleaning of solution pipelines at the Bratsk aluminum smelter (In Russ.), Sovremennye tekhnologii i avtomatizatsii v mashinostroenii, 2017, no. 16, pp. 6163.

4. Ishchenko Zh.N., Zavoda V.P., Todyshev V.Ya., Degtev Yu.N., Destruction of hard deposits in the process of cleaning pipes with electric discharges (In Russ.), Elektronnaya obrabotka materialov, 2005, no. 2, pp. 8189.

5. Yutkin L.A., Elektrogidravlicheskiy effekt i ego primenenie v promyshlennosti (Electro-hydraulic effect and its application in industry), Leningrad: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986, 254 p.

6. URL: http://www.zevs-irp.ru.

7. Sokolov V.Yu. Saitbattalov R.R., Avtomatizirovannyy energeticheskiy kompleks po ochistke truboprovoda s ispol'zovaniem elektrogidravlicheskogo effekt (Automated energy complex for pipeline cleaning using electro-hydraulic effect), Collected papers Universitetskiy kompleks kak regional'nyy tsentr obrazovaniya, nauki i kul'tury (University complex as a regional center of education, science and culture), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Methodological Conference, Orenburg, 01-03 February 2017, Orenburg: Publ. of OSU, 2017, pp. 528-531.

8. Application for invention no. 2021127727; filing date 09/21/2021.

9. URL: https://gstou.ru/structure/research-centers-and-laboratories/nilit.php, https://youtu.be/tvPe4hdVArs

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-83-85

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622.692.4.05
I.V. Buyanov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Aralov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.M. Korolionok (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.I. Iordansky (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), N.V. Berezhansky (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Main results of sampling equipment study

Keywords: oil, sampling equipment, sample representativity

By its composition, the oil transported via main pipelines has heterogeneous composition including water, chlorides and mechanical impurities. To provide reliable taking of crude oil mass into account, home oil companies use crude oil custody transfer metering systems, which incorporate sampling equipment (SE). In this paper the authors throw light on the actual theme of studying SE structures, as well as evaluation of actual sample representativity taken from pipelines using SE. Similar studies have become possible owing to 10-year development of special measurement standards in the Russian Federation that permit to perform experimental studies in the area of liquid-gas mixture mass flow rates. Within the testing four SE with nominal diameter DN100 with one and five holes of various input areas were manufactured. The paper explains in detail the flow preparation and sampling procedure that is realized after flow stabilization at both completely and partially opened throttles; at that four liquid samples are taken successively. Water and oil simulator EXXSOL D100 were used as working liquids. The results of performed experimental studies demonstrated that SE versions with five holes of design input areas 98 and 129.035 mm2 are most preferable in comparison with the values specified at the National Primary Special Standard of mass flow rate unit of liquid-gas mixtures GET-195-2011. The obtained experimental results will be used for creating digital twins of both main equipment and CQCS as a whole.  This project is currently implemented in The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC.

References

1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Sovremennoe sostoyanie vedeniya uchetnykh operatsiy s neft'yu i nefteproduktami s primeneniem izmeritel'nykh sistem v Rossii (The current state of accounting operations with oil and oil products using measuring systems in Russia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 246 p.

2. Goryunova S.M., Mukhametkhanova L.M., Petukhova L.V., Nikolaeva N.G., Problems of metrological support of the Russian oil complex (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2011, no. 11, pp. 263-266.

3. Yagudin I.R., Petrov V.N., Dresvyannikov A.F., A promising direction in the development of mobile calibration units for measuring crude oil (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 4, pp. 203-208.

4. Aralov O.V., Korolenok A.M., Buyanov I.V. et al., Mathematical modeling of devices for sampling oil and oil products from pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 12, pp. 128130, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-12-128-130

5. Solov'ev V.G., Varsegov V.L., Malyshev S.L., Petrov V.N., Development and creation of state primary special standard of a mass flow-rate unit of get 195-2011 gas-liquid mixtures (In Russ.), Vestnik KGTU im. A.N. Tupoleva, 2013, no. 3, pp. 32-38.

6. Petrov V.N., Malyshev S.L., Mukhametshina G.F., On the issue of controlling the process of circulating mixing (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2016, no. 13, pp. 8183.

7. Tukhvatullin A.R., Korneev R.A., Kolodnikov A.V. et al., Attestatsiya etalonov edinits massovogo i ob"emnogo raskhodov zhidkosti (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 18, pp. 245247.

8. Kupkenov R.R. et al., Oil products purity monitoring in transportation through the main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 342352, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2019-9-3-342-352.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-86-89

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622.692.4-192
.. Vyboischik (Togliatti State University, RF, Togliatti), A.V. Ioffe (IT-Service OOO, RF, Samara), S.A. Knyazkin (IT-Service OOO, RF, Samara), T.V. Tetyueva (IT-Service OOO, RF, Samara), A.V. Fedotova (IT-Service OOO, RF, Samara)
Investigation of destruction of connecting parts of oil-field pipelines during operation

Keywords: pipeline, fittings, oilfield environment, carbon dioxide corrosion, bacterial contamination, corrosion products, corrosion resistance

Pipeline fittings (elbows, adaptors, T-couplings, etc.) are more exposed to stress-corrosion fracture than straight sections of a pipeline. The research and tests were performed to enhance performance of oilfield pipeline systems. A test batch of steel 13HF (high-grade steel containing 0.13% of carbon, chrome and vanadium) pipeline fittings was manufactured to be mounted on oil and gas line pipes featuring improved mechanical properties and extra-high resistance to corrosive oilfield media. Field (bypass) tests of the pipeline fittings (elbows, adaptors, T-couplings, etc.) test batch were run (for 19, 23 and for 42 months) in an operational in-field flow line and oil-gathering line of a West-Siberian oilfield with high contents of dissolved H2S and CO2 as well as with bacterial contamination. Changes in structural and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance were measured prior to and after the tests. General corrosion, local corrosion and bacterial corrosion rates were quantified in course of the tests. The structure, chemical and phase composition of corrosion products as well as their change versus the time of testing were identified. Specific features of stress-corrosion fracture and changes of general and local corrosion rates versus time in service are identified for each type of pipe fittings. High intensity of bacterial corrosion in pipeline fittings as compared with pipeline straight sections is pointed out. Heat treatment conditions are proposed that form the 13HF structural condition which gives pipeline fittings persistent properties and corrosion resistance for continuous operation in oilfield media with contents of carbon dioxide. 

References

1. Zavyalov V.V., Problemy ekspluatatsionnoy nadezhnosti truboprovodov na pozdney stadia razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (Pipelines operating reliability problems in the late stages of field development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2005, 332 p.

2. Vyboyshchik M.A., Ioffe A.V., Razrabotka stali, stoykoy k uglekislotnoy korrozii v neftedobyvaemykh sredakh (Development of steel resistant to carbon dioxide corrosion in oil-producing environments), In: Perspektivnye materialy (Promising Materials), Part 7, 2017, pp. 115160.

3. Ioffe A.V., Tetyueva T.V., Revyakin V.A. et al., Stress-corrosion fracture of electric-welded pipes in the high-aggressiveness oilfield mediums (In Russ.), Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov, 2012, no. 10, pp. 2228.

4. Vyboyshchik M.A., Ioffe A.V., Borisenkova E.A. et al., Corrosion damage of oil line pipes from chromium-molybdenum-containing steels under conditions of high aggressiveness of produced medium (In Russ.), Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov, 2012, no. 10, pp. 2933.

5. Vyboyshchik M.A., Zyryanov A.O., Gruzkov I.V., Fedotova A.V., Carbon dioxide corrosion of oilfield casing and tubular goods in media saturated with H2S and Cl (In Russ.), Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gos. Universiteta, 2019, no. 2(48), pp. 617.

6. Bosch C., Jansen J-P., Poepperling R.K., Influence of chromium contents of 0,5 to 1,0 % on the corrosion behavior of low alloy steels for large diameter pipes in CO2 containing aqueous media, Corrosion, 2003, aper no. 03118, pp. 119.

7. Sun J., Sun C., Lin X. et al., Effect of chromium on corrosion behavior of P110 steels in CO2H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature, Materials, 2016, V. 9, no. 3, 200 p., DOI: 10.3390/ma9030200

8. Ko M., Ingham B., Laycock N., Williams D.E., In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of chromium additions to the steel and solution on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels, Corrosion Science, 2014, V. 80, pp. 237246, DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2013.11.035
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-90-94

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

502.6: 622.276.5
.. Soromotin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), .Yu. Solodovnikov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
The ecological condition of Wostochno-Mytaiahinskoye oil field of Surgutneftegas PJSC

Keywords: Vostochno-Mytaiahinskoye oil field, surface waters, bottom clays, soils, ecological monitoring

In the process of hydrocarbon production, all components of natural media are exposed: atmospheric air, soil-vegetation cover, surface waters, including bottom deposits. Under the conditions of medium acquisition with its high wetlastivity and climbing, it is the greamp-lake ecosystems that are most vulnerable in the process of human activity. This fully applies to the territory of the Vostochno-Mytaiahinskoye oil field developed since 2009. In the landscaped structure of this field, the lake-marsh complexes occupy 77 % of the territory. In the process of oil and gas production, the impact is accompanied by a change in the appearance of landscapes and the initial geochemical environment. On some components of nature (soil and vegetable cover), the impact is limited by construction sites, on the other (water medium) it is somewhat larger due to the characteristics of the natural component. Therefore, careful attitude towards the environment is the basic principle of sustainable development of Surgutneftegas PJSC. In all areas of subsoil subsoil, research is conducted to determine the environmental impact through environmental monitoring. The research results include the definition of both the background and current state, which makes it possible to determine the degree and consequences of the effects of oil and gas production on the environment. The analysis of the current state of natural media of the territory of the Vostochno-Mytakhinskoye field made it possible to establish, the presence of biogenous substances, some heavy metals and other chemicals, the content of which in certain periods exceeds the established standards of maximum permissible concentrations. This is characteristic not only for this field, but also for other deposits in the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district - Yugra and other regions of Russia, where hydrocarbon production is not conducted. This is due to the natural features of the terrain and processes flowing in the depths of the Earth.

References

1. Shubaev L.P., Surgut Polesye of West Siberian lowland (In Russ.), Izvestiya VGO SSSR = Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, 1956, T. 88, no. 2, pp. 167169.

2. Liss O.L., Abramova L.I., Avetov N.A. et al., Bolotnye sistemy Zapadnoy Sibiri i ikh prirodookhrannoe znachenie (Marsh systems of Western Siberia and their conservation value): edited by Kuvaev V.B., Tula: Grif i Co Publ., 2001, 584 p.

3. Kasimov N.S., Gavrilova I.P., Gerasimova M.I. et al., Landshaftno-geokhimicheskie osobennosti (Landscape and geochemical features), In: Ekologicheskiy atlas Rossii (Ecological atlas of Russia), Moscow: Feoriya Publ., 2017, 509 .

4. Resolution of the Government of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra no. 485-P of 23.12.11. O sisteme nablyudeniya za sostoyaniem okruzhayushchey sredy v granitsakh litsenzionnykh uchastkov na pravo pol'zovaniya nedrami s tsel'yu dobychi nefti i gaza na territorii Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga-Yugry (On the system for monitoring the state of the environment within the boundaries of licensed areas for the right to use subsoil for the purpose of oil and gas production in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra).

5. Moskovchenko D.V., Ekogeokhimiya neftegazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Zapadnoy Sibiri (Ecogeochemistry of oil and gas regions of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Geo Publ., 2013, 259 p.

6. Resolution of the Government of the Autonomous Okrug No. 441-P dated 10.11.04. Predel'no dopustimyy uroven' (PDU) soderzhaniya nefti i nefteproduktov v donnykh otlozheniyakh poverkhnostnykh vodnykh ob"ektov na territorii Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga-Yugry (Maximum permissible level (MPL) for the content of oil and oil products in bottom sediments of surface water bodies on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra).

7. Nechaeva E.G., Landscape-geochemical zoning of the West Siberian Plain (In Russ.), Geografiya i prirodnye resursy, 1990, no. 4, pp. 7783.

8. Drugov Yu.S., Rodin A.A., Ekologicheskie analizy pri razlivakh nefti i nefteproduktov. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo (Environmental analyzes for oil and oil product spills. A practical guide), Moscow: Binom. Laboratoriya znaniy Publ., 2009, 270 p.

9. Pikovskiy Yu.I., Ustoychivost' pochv k zagryazneniyu neft'yu i nefteproduktami (Resistance of soils to pollution by oil and oil products), In: Ekologicheskiy atlas Rossii (Ecological atlas of Russia), Moscow: Feoriya Publ., 2017, 509 .

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-96-99

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614.8:622.692.4.07(211)
U.S. Poverenniy (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.A. Kiktev (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.D. Dubrov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), D.A. Zelenin (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), D.Yu. Shestakov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.A. Popov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.A. Poverennaya (Kuban State University, RF, Krasnodar), E.V. Shestakova (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar), A.V. Kolesnikov (Moscow State University Of Civil Engineering (National Research University), RF, Moscow), .. Greb (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Features of high-strength steels use for overground crossings of oil and gas pipelines through water barriers, taking into account the calculation for resistance to progressive collapse

Keywords: high-strength steels, resistance to progressive collapse, crossing water obstacles, static and dynamic formulation of the problem

The article presents examples of the installation of overground crossings of oil and gas pipelines through water barriers using steels C345 / C355, C 390, C440. For crossings, as for objects with an increased level of responsibility, requirements are presented on the need to ensure resistance to progressive collapse. Compliance analysis of high-strength steels according to GOST 27772-2021 "Rolled products for building steel structures" to the requirements of SP 16.13330.2017 "Steel structures" in terms of chemical composition, carbon equivalent, impact strength. The requirements for steels for construction areas with operating temperatures from -45 to minus -55˚C are given. The issue of weldability of high-strength steels between themselves and with high-strength steels is considered. On the example of the crossing of an oil pipeline with a diameter of DN500 and a length of 90 m, an analysis was made of the feasibility of using high-strength steels. The use of C390 steel makes it possible to reduce the cost and metal consumption of solutions by more than 25% compared to C345 steels. In the future, when using C440 steels for shaped profiles, it will be possible to reduce the metal consumption of similar transitions by more than 40% due to an increase in the strength of the steel. The analysis of calculations for resistance to progressive collapse is carried out. The calculation prerequisites for solving problems of dynamic formulation in accordance with SP 385.1325800.2018, SP 296.1325800.2017 are presented. When calculating the transition to progressive collapse, design situations with the exclusion of the support brace and the exclusion of the element of the lower chord are taken into account. To improve the quality of solutions, calculations were performed in 3 different software products, which showed sufficient convergence of the results. The calculation in the software packages MicroFe-StaDiCon 2021, STARK ES 2021, LIRA 10.12 was performed in a nonlinear formulation by a static method. Calculations in SP LIRA 10.12 were additionally performed in the dynamic formulation of the problem.

References

1. Drobot D.Yu., Vozmozhnye tekhnologii rascheta na progressiruyushchee obrushenie (Possible technologies for calculating progressive collapse), Moscow: Izdatel'skie resheniya Publ., 2020, 264 p.

2. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2020618505 Svaya-SAPR Pro, Authors: Medyanik S.S., Kesiyan G.A, Dubrov A.D., Zenkov E.V., Zagumennikova A.V., Poverennyy Yu.S., Fedoseenko V.O., Gilev N.G.

3. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2021616474 TsMLO, Authors:  Dubrov A.D., Poverennyy Yu.S., Gilev N.G., Zenkov E.V., Yargunina A.O.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-100-104

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