Key words: oil and gas complex, reserves, geological exploration, investment, innovation and modernization, industry science, cadres, the state.
The main trends and problems of development of oil and gas industry of Russia are considered. It is shown that, despite the efforts made, the actual problem is the reproduction of mineral raw material resources. It is noted that the modernization of industry is impossible without appropriate scientific support. The main lines, in which efforts of industrial enterprises, scientific organizations and the state should be concentrated, are presented. The necessity of development and urgent realization of a complex of measures is accentuated.