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S.I. Kudryashov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), I.S. Afanasiev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), G.V. Sansiev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Gubaev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), P.A. Shakhov (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), S.Yu. Gashev (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), A.O. Esaulov (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), Nguyen Quynh Lam (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Nguyen Lam Anh (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.N. Ivanov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau)
The life cycle of oil-and-gas projects on the southern shelf of Vietnam in the context of Block 12/11: discovery, development, maturity

Keywords: geological exploration, basin modelling, regional geology, Vietnam shelf

The article reveals the history of geological exploration at one of the sites (block 12/11) of the Nam Con Shon basin on the shelf of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. A concrete example demonstrates the complexity of the task of finding productive deposits in a geological area where active tectonic processes accompanied sedimentation throughout the history of the formation of productive layers. The article describes the history of exploration since 1973, when eight large oil and gas companies (Pecten, AGIP, ONGC, BP-Statoil Alliance, etc.) at different times tried their hand at exploring the oil and gas prospects of this block. Despite a significant amount of drilling and seismic research, none of the subsoil users has moved to the industrial development of the site. In 2012, due to the transfer of license rights to Zarubezhneft JSC, the company faced a difficult task to continue geological exploration and, subsequently, to develop a commercially effective scheme for involving deposits in commercial operation. The operator of the project was the company Vietsovpetro JV, a subsidiary of Zarubezhneft JSC in Vietnam. The article describes the approaches of Zarubezhneft JSC to geological exploration. The results of work on 3D seismic survey and various variants of their interpretation are presented. The regional geological description of the work site, the results of the analysis of the geological structure and basin modeling are given, the oil source rocks are determined and trends in the development of oil and gas deposits are substantiated, promising search areas are determined. The results of exploratory drilling, the history of new discoveries and the strategy of field development are described.



1. Filippov A., Oil and gas - marine continuation of the earths history (In Russ.), Neftegas.RU, 2014, no. 10, pp. 6470.

2. Kudryashov S.I., Le Vet Khay, Fam Suan Shon et al., The White Tiger field: from the history of development to development prospects (dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Vietsovpetro joint venture) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 6-14.

3. Neftegazovaya geologiya i resursy Vetnama (Petroleum geology and resources of Vietnam), Hanoi: Publ. of KNG Petrovetnam, 2015, 550 .

4. Phi Manh Tung, Usloviya formirovaniya skopleniy uglevodorodov i otsenka perspektiv neftegazonosnosti v basseyne Yuzhnyy Konshon (shelf Yuzhnogo Vetnama) (Conditions for formation of hydrocarbon accumulations and estimation of prospects for oil-and-gas-bearing capacity of the South-Konshon basin): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2016, 147 .

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6. Sovershenstvovanie metodiki obosnovaniya poiskovo-razvedochnogo bureniya s ispolzovaniem mnogomernoy modeli neftegazonosnoy sistemy na primere bloka 12/11 Yuzhno-Konshonskogo basseyna (Improving the methodology for substantiating prospecting and exploratory drilling using a multidimensional model of an oil and gas bearing system on the example of block 12/11 of the South-Konshon basin), Vungtau: Publ. of Vetsovpetro, NIPI Morneftegaz, 2016, 111 .

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8. Obnovlenie nachalnykh geologicheskikh zapasov mestorozhdeniya Thien Nga Hai Au bloka 12/11 kontinentalnogo shelfa Vetnama (Update of initial geological reserves of the Thien Nga Hai Au field in block 12/11 of the continental shelf of Vietnam), Vungtau: Publ. of Vetsovpetro, 2020, 309 .

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-30-36

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S.I. Kudryashov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), I.S. Afanasiev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Solovyev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Petrashov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), G.V. Sansiev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), K.A. Dubrovin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), .I. Volik (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), Ia.O. Simakov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Vakhin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.I. Mukhamatdinov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), S.A. Sitnov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.F. Minkhanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), M.A. Varfolomeev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.V. Bolotov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), D.K. Nurgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of catalytic aquathermolysis technology in Boca de Jaruco oilfield: spotlight from theory to field test

Keywords: steam injection, aquathermolysis, heavy oil, in situ conversion, catalyst, transition metals
The article presents a review of laboratory and field results on the development and application of new technology of catalytic aquathermolysis to improve the efficiency of heavy oil production in case of Boca de Jaruco field. The main stages of work are considered: from laboratory studies to determine changes in oil properties and displacement efficiency in the presence of aquathermolysis catalyst to the selection of optimal injection conditions and analysis of the results of field tests in a pilot area. A set of studies carried out in an autoclave reactor under thermobaric conditions of steam-thermal treatment of wells at the Boca de Jaruco field showed that among a series of systems based on various transition metals and organic ligands, the system based on nickel tallate turned out to be the most effective catalyst. The optimal concentration (0.2% by metal) of the catalyst was determined and its commercial form for injection into the well was developed. Regularities have been established for the formation of the active form consisting of mixed nickel sulfides nanosized particles. It is shown that nanoparticles adsorbed on the rock can act for several cycles of steam injection. It has been established that the use of a catalyst, the active form of which is formed in situ, provides a decrease in the mass fraction of heavy components of oil, an increase in the fraction of saturated hydrocarbons, a decrease in the average molecular weight of oil, a multiple decrease in oil viscosity, as well as an increase in the displacement efficiency by 50% (relative) in laboratory tests.

A technology has been developed for thermal steam treatment of wells together with the injection of a catalytic composition in a cyclic mode. Catalyst production has been probated. Field testing demonstrated an increase in bituminous oil production of more than 2000 tons per well compared to the previous steaming cycle without catalyst. The results obtained confirm the prospects of using the developed technology to improve the efficiency of bituminous oil production. It is currently planned for further scale-up at the Boca de Jaruco field.



1. Shah A., Fishwick R., Wood J. et al., A review of novel techniques for heavy oil and bitumen extraction and upgrading, Energy Environ. Sci., 2010, V. 3, pp. 700714, DOI: 10.1039/b918960b

2. Tumanyan B.P., Petrukhina N.N., Kayukova G.P. et al., Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews, 2015, V. 84(11), pp. 11451175. 

3. Simão A., Domínguez-Álvarez E., Yuan C. et al., On the use of metallic nanoparticulated catalysts for in-situ oil upgrading, Fuel, 2022, V. 313, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122677

4. Kayukova G.P.,  GubaidullinA.T., Petrov S.M. et al., The changes of asphaltenes structural-phase characteristics in the process of conversion of heavy oil in the hydrothermal catalytic system, Energy Fuels, 2016, V. 30, pp. 773783, DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01328

5. Wen S., Zhao Y., Liu Y., Hu S., A study on catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy crude oil during steam stimulation, SPE-106180-MS, 2007, DOI:10.2118/106180-MS

6. Chao K., Chen Y., Liu H. et al., Laboratory experiments and field test of a difunctional catalyst for catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil, Energy Fuels, 2012, V. 26 (2), pp. 11521159, DOI: 10.1021/ef2018385

7. Schuler B. et al., Unraveling the molecular structures of asphaltenes by atomic force microscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, V. 137, no. 31, pp. 98709876, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b04056

8. Hyne J.B. et al., Aquathermolysis of heavy oils, Revista Tecnica INTEVEP, 1982, V. 2, no. 2, pp. 87-94.

9. Mukhamatdinov I.I.,  KhaidarovaA.R., Zaripova R.D. et al., The composition and structure of ultra-dispersed mixed oxide (II, III) particles and their influence on in-situ conversion of heavy oil, Catalysts, 2020, V.10(1), no. 114, DOI: 10.3390 /catal10010114

10. Kudryashov S.I., Afanasev I.S., Petrashov O.V. et al., Catalytic heavy oil upgrading by steam injection with using of transition metals catalysts (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 3034, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2017-8-30-34

11. Al-Muntaser A.A., Varfolomeev M.A., Suwaid M.A. et al., Hydrogen donating capacity of water in catalytic and non-catalytic aquather-molysis of extra-heavy oil: Deuterium tracing study, Fuel, 2021, V. 283, DOI: 10.1016 / j.fuel.2020.118957

12. Vakhin A.V., Aliev F.A., Kudryashov S.I. et al., Aquathermolysis of heavy oil in reservoir conditions with the use of oil-soluble catalysts: Part I Changes in composition of saturated hydrocarbons, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2018, V. 36(2), pp. 1829-1836, DOI:10.1080/10916466.2018.1514411

13. Vakhin A.V.,  Mukhamatdinov I.I., Aliev F.A., et al., Aquathermolysis of heavy oil in reservoir conditions with the use of oil-soluble catalysts: Part II Changes in composition of aromatic hydrocarbons, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2018, V. 36(22), pp. 1850-1856, DOI:10.1080/10916466.2018.1514412

14. Vakhin A.V.,  SitnovS.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Aquathermolysis of heavy oil in reservoir conditions with the use of oil-soluble catalysts: Part III Changes in composition resins and asphaltenes, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2018, V. 36(22), pp. 1857-1863, DOI: 10.1080/10916466.2018.1514413.

15. Vakhin A.V., Mukhamatdinov I.I., Aliev F.A. et al., Industrial application of nickel tallate catalyst during cyclic steam stimulation in Boca De Jaruco reservoir, SPE-206419-MS, 2021, DOI: 10.2118/206419-MS

16. Vakhin A.V., Aliev F.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Extra-heavy oil aquathermolysis using nickel-based catalyst: Some aspects of in-situ transformation of catalyst precursor, Catalysts, 2021, V.11(2), no.189, pp. 1-22, DOI: 10.3390/catal11020189

17. Minkhanov I.F., Bolotov A.V., Al-Muntaser A.A., Experimental study on the improving the efficiency of oil displacement by co-using of the steam-solvent catalyst (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 54-57, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-6-54-57
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-37-41

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R.Yu. Zhukov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), D.A. Antonenko (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), V.Yu. Sinugin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Role of digital transformation in achieving strategic goals of Zarubezhneft JSC

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A.Ya. Fursov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.F. Galimova (Zarubezhneft, RF, Moscow)
Comparative assessment and analysis of the causes of reserves change during exploration and development of multilayer fields

Keywords: reserves estimation, heterogeneity, structural factor, uncertainty, formal attributes of exploration degree, plan of follow-up exploration

The article considers oil reserves conversion and analysis of the change reasons. Reserves listed in the State Budget of the Russian Federation and reserves according to the modern concept at the present exploration degree are analyzed. On the examples of the Volga-Urals and Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district the methods for analyzing the formalized characteristics of deposits structure complexity are given as indicators of reserves conversion over time. These indicators should be taken into account when planning follow-up fields exploration. The numerical characteristics associated with the structural factor and lithological-physical properties are discussed. The analysis of the results showed that in the early stages of deposits exploration there is a significant need for accurate characteristics of seismic data and structural maps. Further drilling of deposits proves that the absence of such characteristics when mapping deposits of small height subsequently leads to significant changes in reserves. The presence of error maps for the geometrization of structural surfaces for different calculations would make it possible to optimally estimate the volume of an oil-saturated reservoir and categorize reserves. Discontinuous formations also make a large contribution to reserves estimation errors. As a criterion for the significance of lithological variability in the change in reserves, the reservoir boundary density parameter is used, that is, the ratio of the perimeter of all reservoir-non-reservoir boundaries within the deposit to the area. It shown that, despite the long history of studying and developing hydrocarbon deposits, it is almost always possible, using certain methods of numerically formalized methods of analysis, to obtain a rationale for identifying underexplored reserves or new understanding of the reserves structure and a quality assessment of different structural elements.



1. Khafizov F.Z., Analiz zapasov nefti (Oil reserves analysis), Tyumen: Nauka. Servis Publ., 2011, 228 p.

2. Fursov A.Ya., Molodtsova E.V., Shubina A.V., Estimation of the possibility of hydrocarbon reserves growth in durably developed fields (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2020, no. 3, pp. 104109.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-46-48

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A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), F.S. Khismatullina (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.R. Aubakirov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), I.V. Kurguzkina (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
The PEXEL algorithm application for automated history matching reservoir simulation mode

Keywords: reservoir simulation model, history matching, automated history matching, digital field, digital twin, permeability

History matching requires a significant portion of simulation model creation time, so updating the "digital twin" on a daily basis has to be associated with minimizing manual labor. In this regard, the transition to automated history matching software becomes imperative. Some of the currently available software for the history matching has proven to be a good solution and allows controlling many parameters. However, because of multifactorial solving the task and the associated complexity in analyzing the results these tools are not widely used. An alternative is the history matching parameters by separate modules (permeability matching, aquifer matching, SCAL matching, etc.) with a preliminary analysis of the reasons of the difference between the actual and calculated values.

This paper presents a relatively simple and effective history matching algorithm that allows well operation parameters to be adjusted to actual data by making modifications to the permeability array. Iteratively, for each well, a cross sectional production analysis is performed and multipliers are calculated for each perforated cell. After that, an interpolation/extrapolation procedure is performed to obtain multipliers for permeability array. This algorithm is formalized, developed as software and tested on sectoral and full-size simulation models. The methodology for testing the history matching algorithm is described and the results of its application are presented. The analysis of calculations results shows that the application of automated history matching of the permeability array, using the described algorithm, allows to replace manual editing with high accuracy and efficiency, while doing it methodologically well. At the moment, the full cycle of history matching has not been implemented. Currently, a program is being developed to aquifer matching, SCAL matching. The SCAL matching algorithm is implemented using machine learning. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the practical application of the developed automated history matching algorithm on synthetic and full-size simulation models.



1. Zakrevskiy K.E., Arzhilovskiy A.V., Timchuk A.S. et al., Geological and hydrodynamic modeling quality improvement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 44-48.

2. Syrtlanov V.R., On some issues of adaptation of hydrodynamic models of hydrocarbon deposits  (In Russ.), Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2009, no. 2, pp. 81-90.

3. Syrtlanov V.R., Golovatskiy Yu.A., Ishimov I.N., Mezhnova N.I., Assisted history matching for reservoir simulation model (In Russ.), SPE-196878-RU, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/196878-MS

4. Syrtlanov V.R., Denisova N.I., Khismatullina F.S., Some aspects of reservoir modelling of large fields for field development planning and monitoring (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 5, pp. 70-74.

5. Khismatullina F.S., Syrtlanov V.R., Syrtlanova V.S., Dubrovin A.V., Some aspects of a technique of adaptation of hydrodynamic models of non-uniform oil strata (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 1, pp. 47-51.

6. Pyatibratov P.V., Gidrodinamicheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Hydrodynamic modeling of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin State University, 2015, 167 p.

7. Certificate on state registration of the computer program no. 2018661844. PEXEL (Peksel) - a program for creating and editing grids, properties and wells of geological and hydrodynamic models of oil and gas fields with the ability to dynamically compile and execute code, Author: Aubakirov A.R.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-49-52

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S.V. Dobryden (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), S.K. Turenko (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), T.V. Semenova (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Increasing the accuracy of reservoir identification in volcanogenic deposits

Keywords: volcanogenic rocks, reservoirs, porosity coefficient, well logging

The article covers the features of reservoir identification in the volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits of the central zone of the northeastern frame of the Krasnoleninsky arch. The porosity cut-off values used for reservoirs identification based on standard well logging complex data have been clarified. Porosity ratio analysis in the intervals with formation fluid inflow allowed identifying two predominant reservoir types: fractured-cavern and fractured-cavernous-granular. Reservoirs of the fractured-cavern type are characterized by low porosity and permeability properties. The presence of macrocracks and caverns causes a decrease in core recovery and increased production rates of formation fluids during testing do not correspond to the reduced filtration properties of core samples characterizing an impermeable matrix. The reservoirs of this type are mainly effusive. The void space of reservoirs with increased porosity and permeability properties is represented by cracks, cavities and intergranular voids of both primary and post-magmatic origin. The reservoirs of this type are confined to effusive, volcanoclastic, volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks with different intensity of secondary alterations. For fractured-cavernous-granular reservoirs, boundary values were determined using the results of oil displacement experiments by comparing dynamic coefficients, effective and total porosity of core samples, as well as using the porosity values calculated from the well logging data based on inflow and non-inflow intervals. The range of ambiguity of distributions reaches 5-25%, which significantly reduces the accuracy of reservoir intervals identification in wells by the value of the porosity boundary value. The boundary porosity value was obtained by constructing cumulative distributions of porosity values of core samples divided into reservoirs and non-reservoirs and cumulative distributions of porosity values of inflow and non-inflow intervals calculated from well logs. There is a tendency to increase the ranges of ambiguity and decrease the efficiency of separating the rocks of the studied sequence into reservoirs and non- reservoirs from volcanoclastic, volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks to effusives with voids, transformed volcanogenic rocks, weathering crust deposits, which is probably due to the complication structure of the void space and an increase of secondary minerals. An example of reservoir intervals identification using a complex of qualitative and quantitative features is shown. The use of updated boundary porosity values allowed a significant increase of the reservoir identification accuracy in studied deposits.



1. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., Romanov E.A., Fedortsov I.V., Sostoyanie izuchennosti i sovremennye vzglyady na stroenie, sostav i perspektivy doyurskikh otlozheniy zapadnoy chasti Surgutskogo rayona (Rogozhnikovskiy litsenzionnyy uchastok) (The state of knowledge and modern views on the structure, composition and prospects of pre-Jurassic deposits of the western part of the Surgut region (Rogozhnikovsky license area)),Proceedings of IX scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2006, pp. 133146.

2. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., N Gil'manova.V., Shadrina S.V., Usloviya formirovaniya zalezhey uglevodorodov v doyurskikh otlozheniyakh na Rogozhnikovskom litsenzionnom uchastke (Conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon deposits in pre-Jurassic sediments at the Rogozhnikovsky license area), Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk 1317 November 2007, Ekaterinburg: IzdatNaukaServis Publ., 2007, pp. 372383.

3. Glebocheva N.K., Telenkov V.M., Khamatdinova E.R., Effusive reservoir capacity space structure from logs and core (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2009, no. 6 (183), pp. 310.

4. Kozyar V.F., Telenkov V.M., Egorov V.V., Kozyar N.V., Qualitative parameter evaluation for unconventional reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2007, no. 10, pp. 4961.

5.  Farooqui M.Y., Hou H., Li G. et al., Evaluating volcanic reservoirs, Oilfield Review, 2009, no. 1, pp. 3647.

6. Kondakov A.P., Efimov V.A., Dobryden' S.V., Reservoirs identifying in the volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the northeast edge of Krasnoleninskiy arch based on logging, core study and well testing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 1, pp. 29-34, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-1-29-34

7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, 262 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-54-57

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N.A. Cheremisin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Shubin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen; Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.Yu. Kudymov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.M. Yatsenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Influence of rocks creeping deformation on laboratory evaluation of their compressibility

Keywords: laboratory modeling, reservoir compressibility, irreversible deformation, creeping deformation, residual deformation, hydrodynamic model, physical and mechanical properties, measurement technique

The article discusses issues related to the assessment of irreversible creeping deformation effect on the compressibility of reservoirs, which, by definition, is considered elastic and is determined in standard experiments. Standard experiments are used regularly in the industry, and the results of these experiments are widely used for hydrodynamic modeling of field development and the hydrocarbon reserves assessment. Laboratory studies of the dependence of effective pressure on reservoir properties and rock samples porosity were carried out. A laboratory complex allows determining permeability with simultaneous measurement of sample deformation under the influence of crimping pressure. In the experiments, core samples of terrigenous deposits of the Tyumen suite of the field in Western Siberia (Rosneft Oil Company asset) were used. It is shown if the phenomenon of rock creeps under a load that exceeds the historical maximum is not taking into account it leads to an increase in uncertainty in determining the rocks compressibility. It is discussed how deformation hysteresis and rock permeability reduction under cyclic changes in effective pressure depend on the method and duration of measurement. The duration of the experiments depends on many factors, including subjective ones, which contributes to an increase in uncertainty in determining the studied rocks compressibility. However, creep tests are often, but not "generally" included in compressibility tests as additional steps. In this connection, it is recommended to conduct a series of test experiments for new and little-studied deposits to determine the possibility and rate of creeping deformation.



1. Sonich V.P., Cheremisin H.A., Baturin Yu.E., Influence of reservoir pressure reduction on reservoir properties of rocks in Western Siberia fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 9, pp. 5254.

2. McPhee C., Reed J., Zubizarreta I., Core analysis: A best practice guide, Elsevier, 2015, 852 p.

3. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po dlitel'nym ispytaniyam gornykh porod (Guidelines for long-term testing of rocks), Leningrad: Publ. of All-union research institute of mining mechanics and mine surveying, 1968, 21 p.

4. Kuznetsov Yu.F., Creep study of some rocks (In Russ.), Zapiski gornogo instituta im. G.V. Plekhanova, 1969, V. LVII, no. 1, pp. 2934.

5. Cheremisin N.A., Klimov A.A., Efimov P.A., Optimization of oil pools flooding technologies at a late stage of their development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 4, pp. 4143.

6. Shinkarev M.B., Reytblat E.A., Cheremisin N.A., The main sources of wells water-flooding and prediction peculiarities of produced water volumes from lithologically isolated gas-condensate deposit (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 12, pp. 1823.

7. Cheremisin A.H., Cheremisin N.A., Sonich V.P., Specificity of simulating development of granular reservoirs with elastic-plastic properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 2, pp. 6062.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-58-62

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A.V. Arzhilovsky (Tyumen Petoleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), D.G. Afonin (Tyumen Petoleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Ruchkin (Tyumen Petoleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Kobyashev (Tyumen Petoleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), N.A. Morozovskiy (Rosneft Oil Company, RF Moscow), K.V. Toropov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF Moscow)
Express assessment of the increase in the oil recovery as a result of water-alternating-gas technology application

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, gas injection, water-alternating-gas (WAG), oil displacement mode, minimum mixing pressure, algorithm, additional oil production, increase in oil recovery factor, heterogeneity in permeability

Rosneft Oil Company pays special attention to the application of a systematic approach to search for the most effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This article continues series of articles devoted to the problems of substantiation and implementation of gas injection. The authors consider the regression dependence development for rapid assessment of the increase in the oil recovery as a result of gas injection.

Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of gas injection and water-alternating-gas (WAG) technology as EOR methods. Such methods are very expensive in terms of both capital costs for field infrastructure and equipment, and the cost of operation, process control, laboratory tests and design study. When it is necessary to study a significant number of potential objects and injection options, it is important to perform preliminary upper-level technical and economic assessments. Such assessments should contain, firstly, the possible risks of the WAG application, secondly, calculations of the expected technological effect, and thirdly, the production profiles obtained promptly in order to calculate the economic feasibility of the event. Earlier the authors have considered various geological, technological and organizational risks, as well as the principles of ranking objects according to the order of application. In this article the oil recovery factor increase as a result of WAG is assessed. Existing expert systems for assessing WAG effect on oil recovery factor are poorly accessible or use a limited data set. In addition, a number of parameters are interrelated and describe the spatial and volumetric characteristics of the object, but at the same time they do not contain regional features of deposits. Based on a series of multivariate calculations using sector hydrodynamic model and comparison with the actual results, the authors proposed new regression dependence for determining oil recovery increase, linking the displacement pressure and a number of key filtration properties into a single formula.



1. Vashurkin A.I. et al., Ispytanie tekhnologiy gazovogo i vodogazovogo vozdeystviya na Samotlorskom mestorozhdenii (Testing of technologies for gas and water-gas treatment at the Samotlor field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1989, 38 p.

2. Gusev S.V. et al., Analiz tekushchego sostoyaniya i perspektivy primeneniya metodov povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov na mestorozhdeniyakh PO Nizhnevartovskneftegaz (Analysis of the current state and prospects for the use of enhanced oil recovery methods at the Nizhnevartovskneftegaz fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1991, 71 p.

3. Zatsepin V.V., Maksutov R.A., Review of WAG process industrial application. Modern consist (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2009, no. 7, pp. 1321.

4. Christensen J.R., Stenby E.E., Skauge A., Review of WAG field experience, SPE-71203-PA, 2001, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/71203-PA

5. Belazreg L., Mahmood S.M., Water alternating gas incremental recovery factor prediction and WAG pilot lessons learned, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 2020, V. 10, pp. 249269, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-019-0694-x

6. Ibin Yuy et al., Study assesses CO2 EOR potential by pore structure in Chinas Changqing field (In Russ.), Oil and Gas Journal, 2017, V. 3 (April), pp. 56-61.

7. Stalkup F.I., Miscible flooding fundamentals, Society of Petroleum Engineers Monograph Series, 1983, 204 p.

8. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding // SPE Textbook Series. Richardson, TX: SPE, 1986, 326 p.

9. Barenblatt G.I., Podobie, avtomodelnost, promezhutochnaya asimptotika (Similarity, self-similarity, intermediate asymptotics), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1982, 256 p
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-63-67

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L.A. Gaydukov (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), N.N. Mikhailov (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Technogenesis and its impact on oil reservoirs development

Keywords: technogenesis, borehole environment, clogging, desalinization, suffusion, deformation, emulsion, foaming oil

On the example of unconsolidated high-viscosity oil reservoirs in Western Siberia and saline reservoirs with heterogeneous wettability in Eastern Siberia, based on actual operational data, laboratory experiments and numerical modeling, an analysis of the influence of anomalous effects of technogenesis on development indicators is carried out. Technogenesis refers to the stage of transformation of rocks in reservoir conditions under technogenic influence, when the technogenic processes mainly influence on the rocks composition and properties and fluids saturating, and natural conditions play a related role. Abnormal effects is understood as behavior deviating from the norm, general patterns accepted in the practice of oil reservoir development. Based on field data and generalization of previous studies, it is shown that during the development of unconsolidated reservoirs with high-viscosity oil a complex of anomalous effects of technogenesis occurs: deformation, destruction of the reservoir with an abnormal decrease in well productivity; destruction of screening clay bridges; formation of preferential filtration channels (wormholes); the effect of foaming oil; intra-reservoir emulsification of oil. For saline formations, the reservoir desalinization effect in the process of flooding with low-mineralized water can have both positive and negative effect on the reservoir development indicators, depending on the degree and nature of the salinization spread along the section. On the actual examples, it is shown that standard modeling approaches and development design techniques do not fully take into account the specifics of the technogenesis of formations complicated by a unique complex of geological and physical factors. Achieving the efficiency targets of such hydrocarbon deposits is impossible without creating a scientific and methodological basis corresponding to the technogenesis specifics. Thus, the article substantiates the importance of creating scientific foundations for the oil reservoirs development in the conditions of abnormal technogenesis effects.



1. Zaytsev M.V., Mikhaylov N.N., Borehole zone effect on well deliverability (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 1, pp. 6466.

2. Mikhaylov N.N., Izmenenie fizicheskikh svoystv gornykh porod v okoloskvazhinnoy zone (Changes in the physical properties of rocks in the borehole zone), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 152 p.

3. Gaydukov L.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Influence of horizontal well near wellbore features on the well productivity index (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 1, pp. 90-93.

4. Mikhaylov N.N., Chirkov M.V., Formation damage kinetics during reservoir development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 7, pp. 100-104.

5. Popov S.N., Anomal'nye proyavleniya mekhaniko-khimicheskikh effektov pri razrabotke zalezhey nefti i gaza (Anomalous manifestations of mechanical and chemical effects in the development of oil and gas deposits): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2020.

6. Gaidukov L.A., Features of horizontal well production in unconsolidated sands with high viscosity oil, SPE-181909-MS, 2016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/181909-MS

7. Gaydukov L.A., Approaches to hydrodynamic modeling in conditions of anomalous geological-technological effects manifestations when developing non-standard reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 9, pp. 5-13, DOI: 10.30713/0207-2351-2020-9(621)-5-13

8. Tulenkov S.V., Machekhin D.S., Vologodskiy K.V. et al., Planning, execution, and interpretation of results of pilot operations on Russkoye heavy oil field (Part 1) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 7073.

9. Maini B.B., Foamy oil flow in heavy oil production, JCPT, 1996, V. 35(6), pp. 21-24, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/96-06-01

10. Gaydukov L.A., Ivantsov N.N., Stepanov S.V. et al., Assessment of possibilities of hydrodynamic simulators to model development of high-viscous oil fields. Part 2. Foams and emulsions (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2016, no. 1, pp. 37-43.

11. Gaydukov L.A., Nikolaev V.A., Vorobev V.S., Features of water and process fluids effect on filtration properties of terrigenous reservoirs of the Nepa suite of Eastern Siberia, SPE-187880-MS, 2017, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/187880-MS
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-68-73

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622.276.1/.4(470.41) + 552.578.2:53
A.T. Zaripov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), V.M. Khusainov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.Kh. Kabirova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Effect of geological environment temperature and oil composition on hydrocarbon withdrawal in Tatarstan fields

Keywords: temperature of phase transition in oil, rheology, geological environment, recoverable reserves

The paper discusses the problem of structural phase transition in oil that takes place in the course of production of hydrocarbon reserves. This phenomenon is due to the fact that light hydrocarbon fractions are the first to be produced, and that the formation is cooled by the injected displacement agent in waterflooded development. Phase change of the high-molecular oil components including asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins, results in phase transition in oil, which, eventually, might end in loss of recoverable reserves. Because of presence of a large number of interacting organic compounds in oil, to predict phase transition is a challenging task; still, for successful reservoir development, structural-mechanical properties of oil that are controlled by diversity and interinfluence of oil systems components shall be taken into consideration. The study encompassed a large number of oil fields in the Republic of Tatarstan. Analysis of distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations, pressure and temperature conditions, and reservoir properties made it possible to define main factors responsible for the in-situ phase state of oil. Based on the results of laboratory experiments and statistical analysis, phase transition threshold values of in-situ viscosity and cumulative concentration of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins have been determined. A hypothesis of a geological environment whose temperature conditions restrain phase transition has been justified. It was found that the in-situ reservoir temperature has a controlling influence on the phase state of oil components. The effect of temperature conditions of a geological environment and oil composition on the potential risk of phase transition is shown. The known power-law and logarithmic dependencies were used to demonstrate a possible change of recovery factor resulting from the in-situ oil viscosity increase in the course of reserves production.



1. Kabirova A.Kh., Khusainov V.M., Sotnikov O.S., Issledovanie vliyaniya sostava nefti i termobaricheskikh usloviy na fazovoe sostoyanie uglevodorodov (Study of the influence of oil composition and thermobaric conditions on the phase state of hydrocarbons),  Proceedings of TatNIPIneft / PJSC Tatneft, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2019, V. 87, pp. 116120.

2. Kabirova A.Kh., Khusainov V.M., Structural phase transition and necessity to consider this phenomenon in projects of heavy oil fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 7, pp. 3234, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-32-34

3.  KhusainovV.M., Sotnikov O.S., Kabirova A.Kh. et al., Identification of oil deposits for prevention of potential production problems resulting from phase transitions in oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 3032, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-30-32

4. Trebovaniya k sostavu i pravilam oformleniya predstavlyaemykh na gosudarstvennuyu ekspertizu materialov po podschetu zapasov nefti i goryuchikh gazov (Requirements for the composition and rules of registration of materials submitted for state examination on the calculation of oil and combustible gas reserves): approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia No. 564 on December 28, 2015, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_112447/

5. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu klassifikatsii zapasov  i resursov nefti i goryuchikh gazov (Guidelines on the application of oil and combustible gas resources and  reserves classification), Moscow: Publ. of Russian Ministry of Natural Resources, 2016, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_253923/

6. RD 153-39.0-109-01. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po kompleksirovaniyu i etapnosti vypolneniya geofizicheskikh, gidrodinamicheskikh i geokhimicheskikh issledovaniy neftyanykh i neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Guidelines for the integration and staging of geophysical, hydrodynamic and geochemical studies of oil and oil and gas fields): approved by order of the Ministry of Energy of Russia No. 30 on February 5, 2002, URL: http://techexpert.tatneft.ru/docs/

7. Pravila razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rules for the development of hydrocarbon deposits): approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia No. 356 on June 14, 2016 (as amended on August 7, 2020), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_204034/

8. Pravila podgotovki tekhnicheskikh proektov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rules for the preparation of technical projects for the development of hydrocarbon deposits): approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia No. 639 on September 20, 2019, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_334817/
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-74-77

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L.I. Bondareva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.V. Osipov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.S. Monakova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), K.I. Dantsova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Enhanced oil recovery methods using carbon dioxide

Keywords: carbon dioxide, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, oil recovery, tecnologies

Currently according to low-carbon economic development, carbon dioxide is considered not only as a greenhouse gas and industrial waste, but also represents a valuable resource. Due to the constant increase of hard-to-recover reserves it becomes necessary to use enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. The use of carbon dioxide in EOR can be a solution. Multiple studies and tests have established that carbon dioxide can be used as an agent to increase oil recovery, and its injection also solves the problems of its capture and disposal. EOR methods represent an improvement of the usual processes of oil and gas field development based on the development and generalization of the basic concepts of the twophase filtration theory. In many industrial areas carbon dioxide is used for various technological operations. For many years of practice in the development of oil and gas fields, many methods and techniques have been proposed to increase the oil extraction.

This article describes the main prerequisites for the use of carbon dioxide, gas properties, the main types of oil production technologies and EOR. On the basis of global field tests of EOR using carbon dioxide, features, possible complications and disadvantages of using carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery are considered. Development of technologies and criteria for their effective application are dicussed.



1.CCUS: monetizatsiya vybrosov CO2 (CCUS: monetization of CO2 emissions), Vygon consulting, 2021, URL: https://vygon.consulting/products/issue-1911/ 

2. Petukhov A.V., Kuklin A.I., Petukhov A.A. et al., Origins and integrated exploration of sweet spots in carbonate and shale oil-gas bearing reservoirs of the Timan-Pechora basin, SPE-167712-MS, 2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/167712-MS

3. Roshchin P.V., Obosnovanie kompleksnoy tekhnologii obrabotki prizaboynoy zony plasta na zalezhakh vysokovyazkikh neftey s treshchinno-porovymi kollektorami (Substantiation of the complex technology of treatment of the bottom-hole formation zone on deposits of high-viscosity oils with fractured-porous reservoirs): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 2014, 112 .

4. Fomkin A.V., Zhdanov S.A., Tendences and terms of technologies development of efficiency of oil recovery enhancement in Russia and abroad (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 12, pp. 35.

5. Glavnov N.G., Dymochkina M.G., Litvak E.I., Vershinina M.V., Sources of carbon dioxide supply for eor operations in Russia (In Russ.), PRONEFT. Professionalno o nefti, 2017, no. 2(4), pp. 47-52.]

6. URL: https://dpva.ru/Guide/GuidePhysics/Solvability

7. Makhmudbekov E.A., Volnov A.I., Intensifikatsiya dobychi nefti i gaza (Intensification of oil and gas production), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2001, 263 .

8. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.

9.  Trukhina O.S., Sintsov I.A., Experience of carbone dioxide usage for enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya, 2016, no. 3, pp. 205209, URL: http://www.natural-sciences.ru/ru/article/view?id=35849.

10. Sintsov I.A., Trukhina O.S., Povyshenie nefteotdachi putem zakachki uglekislogo gaza (Enhanced oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection), Proceedings of International scientific and technical conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Kosukhin A.N.: edited by Evtin P.V., Tyumen: Publ. of TyumSPTU, 2015, pp. 47-49.

11. URL: https://ppt-online.org/203922

12. Patent RU 2630318 C1, Development method of tight oil reservoirs by cyclic pumping of carbon dioxide, Inventors: Khisamov R.G., Akhmetgareev V.V., Podavalov V.B.

13. Klimov D.S., Eksperimentalnye issledovaniya fiziko-khimicheskikh yavleniy pri uchastii CO2 v filtratsionnykh i obmennykh protsessakh (Experimental studies of physical and chemical phenomena with the participation of CO2 in filtration and exchange processes): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2015, 117 .

14. Dedechko V.A., Geologo-fizicheskie kriterii realizatsii metoda vodogazovogo vozdeystviya (Geological and physical criteria for the implementation of the water-gas treatment method), URL: http://www.rusnauka.com/1_NIO_2014/Geographia/7_155517.doc.htm

15. Shaynurov D.F., Criteria of applicability of water alternating gas injection (In Russ.), Forum molodykh uchenykh, 2019, no. 12, pp. 9981001.

16. Lyan M., Fizicheskoe modelirovanie vytesneniya nefti gazom (rastvoritelem) s ispolzovaniem kernovykh modeley plasta i slim tube (Physical modeling of oil displacement by gas (solvent) using reservoir core models and slim tube): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2016, 118 .

17. Alcorn Z.P. et al., Core-scale sensitivity study of CO2 foam injection strategies for mobility control, enhanced oil recovery, and CO2 storage, Proceedings of E3S Web of Conferences, 2020, V. 146 (4), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202014602002

18. Afzali S., Rezaei N., Zendehboudi S., A comprehensive review on enhanced oil recovery by water alternating gas (WAG) injection, Fuel, 2018, V. 227, pp. 218246, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.04.015

19. URL: https://natural-sciences.ru/ru/article/view?id=35849

20. Khromykh L.N., Litvin A.T., Nikitin A.V., Application of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Vestnik Evraziyskoy nauki, 2018, no. 5, URL: https://esj.today/PDF/06NZVN518.pdf

21. URL: https://adv-res.com/pdf/ARI-2021-EOY-2020-CO2-EOR-Survey-OCT-21-2021.pdf
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-78-84

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A.I. Sayakhutdinov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.A. Ambartsumyan (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N. R. Gabdullina (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Additional development of reserves of mature complex carbonate reservoir on the example of the field in Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing province

Keywords: complex carbonate reservoir, wettability, displacement mechanisms, cyclic water injection

Carbonate reservoirs are characterized by a low degree of knowledge of the matrix and fractures parameters, the lack of the possibility to confidently identify typical objects and to evaluate numerical geological and physical parameters and the wettability of reservoirs. For carbonate reservoirs the reserves internal structure concept, the wettability correctness and related factors influence on the forecasting development design indicators and the choice of a method for extracting oil. The existence of a secondary porosity can be determined by pressure transient analysis, geophysical well logging (FMI, etc.) and core examinations. The secondary porosity in the pressure derivative curve is diagnosed by a particular change in the curve. In addition, the filtration characteristics of the medium are determined by well testing with pressure transient analysis. The entire complex of well testing data was reinterpreted. It was found that secondary porosity was impossible to determine using hydrodynamic tests. At the same time, according to FMI and core data, the presence of cracks is shown. As a result of detailed data processing and modeling, it was concluded that the effect of dual porosity is overlapped by the influence of the wellbore. The analysis of existing and possible displacement mechanisms is a necessary component in choosing the optimal development system and methods of exposure for all carbonate reservoirs, which are characterized by a high influence of the secondary porosity in the filtration process. In order to achieve maximum oil and gas production at a late stage of development, it is necessary to involve the displacement mechanism in the flooded zone from the matrix blocks.



1. Aguilera R., Naturally fractured reservoirs, Tulsa (Oklahoma): PennWell Books, 1980, 703 p.

2. Ambartsumyan R.A., Sayakhutdinov A.I., Rol' promyslovykh issledovaniy v protsesse sozdaniya kontseptual'noy modeli karbonatnogo plasta na primere Khasyreyskogo mestorozhdeniya (The role of field research in the process of creating a conceptual model of a carbonate reservoir on the example of the Khasyrey field), Collected papers Geologiya, geoekologiya i resursnyy potentsial Urala i sopredel'nykh territoriy (Geology, geoecology and resource potential of the Urals and adjacent territories), Ufa, 2019, pp. 141142.

3. Amott E., Observations relating to the wettability of porous rock, SPE-1167-G, 1959, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/1167-G

4. Donaldson E.C., Thomas R.D., Lorenz Ph.B., Wettability determination and its effect on recovery efficiency, SPE-2338-PA, 1969, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/2338-PA5.

5. Nelson R., Geologic analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001, 352 p.

6. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.

7. Aguilera R., Naturally fractured reservoirs, Tulsa (Oklahoma): PennWell Books, 1995, 521 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-85-89

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S.V. Arefiev (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), I.S. Sokolov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), M.S. Pavlov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), O.N. Bosykh (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), E.D. Gorodilova (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Implementation of horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing for low-permeability oil reservoir development

Keywords: oil field, low-permeability reservoir, horizontal wells, multistage hydraulic fracturing, development system

The article highlights the experience of developing one of the objects of the Vasyuganskaya formation represented by a low-permeability reservoir (less than 210-3 μm2). At the initial stage of development, the formation was characterized as complex, poorly studied and had a low production potential, which affected the economics of the proposed well placement systems. Despite this, the subsoil user implemented drilling in a mature development system, which allowed analyzing the actual results of the well operation, identifying the specifics of development and determining the types of research for design purposes. At the next stage, there were considered options with the use of horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing. Together with the use of new issues of state legislation, it provided an economically and technologically effective development option. Most of the object has been drilled and put into operation. The article presents the characteristics of oil displacement in the coordinates recovery from initial recoverable reserves water cut, the logarithmic dependence of the starting oil rate on the horizontal section lengths, the exponential function of the oil rate dynamics on the horizontal section lengths. The authors discuss the results of the performed studies (experiments): the impact of shutdown of injection wells on the operation of production wells, determination of the radius of drainage of production and injection wells, determination of the interval of hydraulic fracturing impact on the rock and the azimuth of fracture strike using the full waveform acoustic logging method. A promising trend for ensuring the efficient recovery of oil reserves is the use of horizontal injection wells, longer horizontal wells with a simultaneous increase in the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, repeated hydraulic fracturing in the horizontal section of wells.



1. Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Optimal waterflood pattern selection with use of multiple fractured horizontal wells for development of the low-permeability formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 6265.

2. Sokolov I.S., Pavlov M.S., Bosykh O.N., Experience of a low-permeable reservoir development by horizontal wells with a multistage hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 8(620), pp. 10-16, DOI: 10.30713/0207-2351-2020-8(620)-10-16

3. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Arefev S.V., Davydov A.V., Problems of transformation of hydrocarbon reserves into an unprofitable technogenic hard-to-recover reserves category (In Russ), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 4, pp. 3843, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-38-43

4. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Mandrik I.E., Arefev S.V., Alternative concept of monitoring and optimization water flooding of oil reservoirs in the conditions of instability of the displacement front (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 118123, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-118-123

5. Arefev S.V., Yunusov R.R., A new approach to old fields  (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2018, no. 3 (75), pp. 5053.

6. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological basis for EOR optimization), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-90-95

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A.V. Syundyukov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.I. Khabibullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.S. Trofimchuk (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.K. Sagitov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa)
A method for maintaining the optimal geometry of induced fracture by regulating the injection mode on low-permeability reservoirs

Keywords: induced fracture, low-permeability reservoir, waterflood, water injection system, horizontal well, bottom hole pressure, reservoir pressure, fracture half-length, periodic injection

One of the urgent tasks of field development is to ensure the optimal process of reservoir flooding in order to achieve the maximum oil recovery factor. Modern systems of reservoir pressure maintenance work with injection modes in which man-made cracks (auto-fracturing) form and spread. This is one of the key complicating factors in the development of low-permeability reservoirs. To date, there is uncertainty in assessing the parameters of auto-fracturing cracks depending on the injection modes. Uncontrolled growth of man-made cracks can lead to premature flooding of producing wells or the formation of stagnant zones.

The article discusses the mechanism of formation and propagation of auto-fracturing cracks during water injection by the reservoir pressure maintenance system. The working conditions of a technogenic crack in the mode of ensuring the optimal flooding process are analyzed. In conditions of high heterogeneity of the reservoir, difficulties arise in maintaining the optimal fracture geometry of the hydraulic fracturing system for a long period of development. To solve this issue, a method has been developed to maintain optimal crack operating conditions during injection by cyclically creating an auto-fracturing crack of optimal length. The application of the described approaches has received positive field results in a number of fields. The project has a wide potential for further development.



1. Syundyukov A.V., Khabibullin G.I., Trofimchuk A.S. et al., Flood control method in fields with hard-to-recover reserves (In Russ.), SPE-206408-MS, 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/206408-MS

2.  Baykov V.A., Zhdanov R.M., Mullagaliev T.I., Usmanov T.S., Selecting the optimal system design for the fields with low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 8497.

3. Davletbaev A.Ya., Baykov V.A., Bikbulatova G.R. et al., Field studies of spontaneous growth of induced fractures in injection wells (In Russ.), SPE 171232-RU, 2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/171232-RU.

4. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 65-75, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf

5. Davletbaev A.Ya., Asalkhuzina G.F., Ivashchenko D.S. et al., Methods of research for the development of spontaneous growth of induced fractures during flooding in low permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), SPE-176562-RU, 2015, DOI:10.2118/176562-MS

6. Sagitov D.K., Determination of the preferred direction of filtration of injected water (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2008, no.4, pp. 1114.

7. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.YA., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 537 544.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-96-99

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M.Yu. Bondar (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Osipov (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Groman (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), I.N. Koltsov (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), G.Yu. Shherbakov (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Chebysheva (Gazpromneft Technological Partnership LLC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Milchakov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), .S. Kosihin (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas JSC, RF, Noyabrsk)
The method for selecting the chemical composition for surfactant-polymer flooding and field evaluation of the effectiveness of its application at the Kholmogorskoye field

Keywords: surfactant-polymer flooding, chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery, residual oil saturation, single well chemical tracer test (SWCTT)

The article considers enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in general and surfactant-polymer (SP) flooding in particular as a tertiary method for redevelopment of mature oil fields in Western Siberia, with potential to increase oil recovery to 60-70% original oil in place. The selection of effective surfactant blend and a polymer for SP flooding is a complex and multi-stage process. The surfactant and the polymer for chemical EOR were selecting during laboratory studies. Thermal stability, phase behavior, interfacial tension and rheology of SP formulation were investigated, and then a prospective chemical design was developed. Filtration experiments were carried out for optimization of slugs and concentrations. Then single well chemical tracer test (SWCTT) was used to evaluate residual oil saturation after water flooding and after implementation of chemical EOR in the near wellbore areas. The difference between the obtained values is a measure of the efficiency of SP flooding. Two SWCTT were conducted with same surfactant, but different design of slugs in order to prove technical and economic models of SP flooding. Oil saturation of sandstone reservoir after the injection of a surfactant-polymer solution was reduced about 10-11%; the increase in the oil recovery factor was about 18%. Temperature model of the bottomhole zone was created and verified. The model predicts that temperature of bottomhole zones essentially below that average in the reservoir. These results are important for interpretation of tracer test and surfactant efficiency. The tested surfactant showed an acceptable efficiency at under-optimum conditions, which is favorable for application of the SP formulation for neighboring field and layers with different reservoir temperatures, but similar water composition. In general, the results of the conducted field tests correlate with the results of the core experiments for the selected surfactant.



1. Volokitin Y., Shuster M., Karpan V. et al., Results of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding pilot at West Salym field (In Russ.), SPE-190382-MS, 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/190382-MS

2. Produced for the first time in Russia, Gazprom Neft synthesises 11 cutting-edge enhanced oil recovery surfactant agents, November 2017, URL: https://www.einpresswire.com/article/419409950/produced-for-the-first-time-in-russia-gazprom-neft-sy...

3. Deans H.A., Using chemical tracers to measure fractional flow and saturation in-situ, SPE-7076-MS, 1978. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/7076-MS

4. Deans H.A., Mut A.D., Chemical tracer studies to determine water saturation at Prudhoe Bay, SPE-28591-PA, 1997, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/28591-PA

5. Buijse M.A., Prelicz R.M., Barnes J.R., Cosmo C., Application of internal olefin sulfonates and other surfactants to EOR. Part 2: The design and execution of an ASP field test, SPE-129769-MS, 2010, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/129769-MS

6. Deans H.A., Parks Y.J., Tezduyar T.E., Thermal effects on single well chemical tracer test for measuring residual oil saturation, SPE-19683-PA, 1991, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/19683-PA

7. Wolfenden R., Yuan Y., The neutral hydrolysis of simple carboxylic esters in water and the rate enhancements produced by acetylcholinesterase and other carboxylic acid esterases, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, V. 133(35), pp. 13821-13823, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja204116a

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-100-105

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K.M. Fedorov (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), A.P. Shevelev (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), I.V. Vydysh (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Arzhilovsky (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), D.A. Anuriev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, RF, Tyumen), N.A. Morozovskiy (Rosneft Oil Company), K.V. Toropov (Rosneft Oil Company)
Methodology for assessing and predicting the reaction of producers to the conformance control of injectors

Keywords: conformance control, chemical enhanced oil recovery methods, additional oil production, injectors, producers, efficiency characteristics, average injection flow rate

The mature fields are characterized by high water cut. One of the reasons for this phenomenon is the breakthrough of water through layers with high filtration characteristics. To solve this problem, low-volume injections of chemical reagents are used for conformance control. Effective use of this technology is impossible without preliminary calculation of the main parameters of such injection. In case of monthly update of geological and technical operations, sector models application is not realistic because of a long setup and a large amount of input data. The article considers the basis for creating an algorithm for designing wells treatment within conformance control using proxy models. The article analyzes the field experience of the use of conformance control at the fields of Rosneft Oil Company. Analysis of approximately 5000 well treatments allowed to select wells with sufficient information scope for subsequent calculations. The criteria for the effectiveness of the application of chemical enhanced oil recovery methods are proposed. The analysis shows that success rate of conformance control operations is more than 70% with average additional oil production 1600 m3. A method for translating the effect of treatment in injectors to producers has been developed. The time interval during which the water cut is restored after treatment is estimated. Statistical processing of data obtained during the injection of polymer-dispersed and sediment-forming compositions is carried out. The dependence of the specific additional production (per 1 m3 of the injected composition) for reacting wells on the conformance control coefficient is given.



1. Seright R.S., Use of preformed gels for conformance control in fractured systems, SPE-35351-PA, 1997, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/35351-PA

2. Sydansk R.D., Al-Dhafeeri A.M., Xiong Y., Seright R.S., Polymer gels formulated with a combination of high- and low-molecular-weight polymers provide improved performance for water-shutoff treatments of fractured production wells, SPE-89402-PA, 2004, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/89402-PA

3. Bai B., Liu Y., Coste J.P., Li L., Preformed particle gel for conformance control: transport mechanism through porous media, SPE-89468-PA, 2007, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/89468-PA

4. Davletbaev A.Ya., Baykov V.A., Bikbulatova G.R. et al., Field studies of spontaneous growth of induced fractures in injection wells (In Russ.), SPE 171232-RU, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171232-RU

5. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 65-75, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf

6. Brilliant L.S., Kozlov A.I., Ruchkin A.A. et al., Studies on properties of low concentrated surfactants solutions and compositions on their basis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 9, pp. 5657.

7. Gazizov A.Sh., Nizamov R.Kh., Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology for the use of a polymer-dispersed system based on the results of field studies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1990, no. 7, pp. 4952.

8. Ruchkin A.A., Yagafarov A.K., Optimizatsiya primeneniya potokootklonyayushchikh tekhnologiy na Samotlorskom mestorozhdenii (Optimization of the use of flow diverting technologies at the Samotlor field), Tyumen': Vektor Buk Publ., 2005, 165 p.

9. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Physicochemical methods for enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 4(2), pp. 4676.

10. Caili D., Qing Y., Fulin Z., In-depth profile control technologies in Chinaa review of the state of the art, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2010, V. 28, pp. 13071315, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10916460903419164

11. Tobenna O., Robert L., Simulation and economic screening of improved oil recovery methods with emphasis on injection profile control including waterflooding. Polymer flooding and a thermally activated deep diverting gel, SPE153740-MS, 2012, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/153740-MS

12. Vydysh I.V., Fedorov K.M., Anur'ev D.A., Comparison of the suspension stabilized by polymer treatment efficiency for injection wells of various completions (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika, 2022, V. 8, no. 1 (29), pp. 5874, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21684/2411-7978-2022-8-1-58-74

13. Fedorov K.M., Gilmanov A.Y., Shevelev A.P. et al., A theoretical analysis of profile conformance improvement due to suspension injection, Mathematics, 2021, no. 9, pp. 1727, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/math9151727

14. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, Richardson: Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1986, 326 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-106-110

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N.N. Filin (Rosneft NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.N. Pogorodniy (Rosneft NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), S.A. Arbuzov (Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, RF, Novosibirsk), N.N. Berdnikov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Using aerial survey materials in order to determine the rock and altitude components of the characteristics of forest plantations when conducting surveys at the facilities of Rosneft

Keywords: photogrammetry, aerial LiDAR survey, UAVs, forest inventory, canopy height model

The article presents the study of an object-oriented approach use in the classification of the species composition of a forest stand based on multispectral aerial photography using DJI P4 Multispectral equipment, as well as checking the reliability and accuracy of determining the fixation of heights of woody vegetation using aerial photography and airborne laser scanning and obtaining data for determining taxation indicators, as an integral part of forest management and forest inventory work, in order to develop a methodology for estimating cutting areas based on airborne laser scanning and digital aerial photography, developed in the interests of Rosneft.

As a part of the study authors checked the possibility of using an object-oriented approach on DJI P4 Multispectral data in order to classify forest elements by species composition, as well as identify trees and determine their heights. The comparison is made of height marks of two point clouds obtained as a result of laser reflections and photogrammetric processing of aerial photographs. The possibility of using a photogrammetric point cloud to determine the heights of woody vegetation using aerial photography methods is evaluated. The tree vertices were searched for by the point cloud of laser reflections, as well as by the photogrammetric point cloud. An OBIA classification was performed using statistical data of spectral channels in the red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR) and red edge (Red Edge) ranges with a check of the possibility of extracting information about the species composition of the forest stand. The verification of the reliability and determination of the accuracy of fixing the heights of woody vegetation was carried out using aerial photography and airborne laser scanning.

Conclusions are drawn about the possibility of using OBIA based on multispectral data for the classification of tree species, a photogrammetric cloud of points in order to determine tree heights. A general conclusion is given on the feasibility of developing and applying new methods for obtaining data for determining forest inventory indicators during forest inventory at the facilities of Rosneft Oil Company.



1. Pogorodniy A.N., Filin N.N., Shumeyko S.A. et al., The unmanned aerial vehicles usage experience on tasks of forest inventory and topography (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 9, pp. 9094, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-9-90-94

2. Shumeyko S.A., Filin N.N., The use of non-professional unmanned aerial vehicle system for the tasks of engineering geodesy and mapping oil and gas fields territory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 10, pp. 4245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-42-45

3. Lopez J.P.A., Object-based methods for mapping and monitoring of urban trees with multitemporal image analysis, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Twente, 2012.

4. Rollan T.A.M. et al., Combining watershed transformation and local maxima approach in developing a tree detection and counting methodology using object-based image analysis, Proceedings of South East Asian Survey Congress 2015, 2015.

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6. De Luca G., Silva J.M.N., Cerasoli S. et al., Object-based land cover classification of cork oak woodlands using UAV imagery and Orfeo ToolBox, Remote Sens., 2019, no. 11 (10), 1238 r., DOI: 10.3390/rs11101238

7. Adhikari A., Kumar M., Agrawal Sh, et al.,  An integrated object and machine learning approach for tree canopy extraction from UAV datasets, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 2021, V. 49, pp. 471478, DOI: 10.1007/s12524-020-01240-2

8. Qingwang Liu; Shiming Li; Xin Tian et al., Dominant trees analysis using UAV LiDAR and photogrammetry, Proceedings of  IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2020, pp. 46494652, DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS39084.2020.9323664

9. St‐Onge B., Vega C., Fournier R.A. et al., Mapping canopy height using a combination of digital photogrammetry and lidar, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2008, V. 29, no. 11,  DOI:10.1080/01431160701469040

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-111-115

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A.M. Vysotskikh (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center JSC, RF, Izhevsk), Ya.D. Ivashov (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center JSC, RF, Izhevsk), D.G. Tyukavkin (RN-Nyaganneftegas JSC, Nyagan), I.S. Puzanov (RN-Nyaganneftegas JSC, Nyagan)
Sulphate reducing bacteria lifecycle in oil field infrastructures of Western Siberia

Keywords: oilfield pipelines, tanks and vessels, sulfate-reducing bacteria, microbiological corrosion, internal corrosion, oil leaks

In June December 2020 Izhevsk Petroleum Research Centre JSC carried out large-scale research aimed at assessment of influence of oil reservoirs microbiological contamination on accidents rate of oilfield pipeline system used at of the Krasnoleninsky arch oil fields (Talinskoye, Em-Egovskoye and Kamennoye) in Western Siberia. Several hypotheses were tested and a review was made of the results of observations, data of laboratory and field tests earlier performed by specialists in microbiological corrosion in oil fields. Data on exploitation targets, oilfield infrastructure of RN-Nyaganneftegas JSC and pipeline accident statistics were analyzed, scope of work and research objects were determined at the initial stage. Further, the specialists Izhevsk Petroleum Research Centre deployed a chemical analysis laboratory directly at the industrial estate of RN-Nyaganneftegas JSC and took samples of liquid and hard deposits for research. The special biosondes had manufactured to determine a concentration of adhered forms of bacteria especially for this project. A high degree influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on normalized frequency of oil leaks has been confirmed after consolidation of data on transported fluids corrosiveness through mathematical analysis. Favorable for SRB reproduction environment conditions, ranges and sources of microbiological contamination of the oil field system, and SRB lifecycle was determined. The dependence of insufficient effectiveness of pipeline corrosion protection on SRB presence had verified. As a result of the research, guidelines were formed available as a strategy for reducing accidents and extending the service life of the oil fields pipeline infrastructure.



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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-116-120

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E.F. Denisov (Pipeline Transport Institute, LLC, RF, Moscow), M.Z. Yamilev (Pipeline Transport Institute, LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Tigulev (Pipeline Transport Institute, LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Pshenin (Saint- Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Analysis of the current level of technologies for determining the location of non-metallic underground services

Keywords: low-pressure polyethylene, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey, underground pipeline, detection of non-metallic pipelines

Identification of underground services during excavation is an important task, while today determining the location of such objects is difficult because of wide use of non-metallic pipes and communications. In the field of pipeline transport, the detection of non-metallic underground services is also associated with the localization of unauthorized tie-ins on trunk pipelines, as well as in case of surveys during the construction or reconstruction of underground services in the presence of existing ones. Simultaneously with the use of non-metallic materials for underground services, detection methods are also being developed. The paper provides an overview of modern methods for detecting non-metallic pipes, and discusses aspects of the interaction of pipe material, ground conditions and the pumping product with existing physical fields used in devices for detecting the location of underground utilities. A comparison of methods technical characteristics allows determining the most suitable one for non-metallic pipes pumping oil and petroleum products. The paper highlights the main criteria for comparing the methods and draws conclusions about their practical applicability at the facilities of the main pipeline transport. To develop final recommendations for the use of effective methods for determining the location of non-metallic underground services technical, economic and organizational criteria should also be taken into account later. Further research in this area will make it possible to develop regulatory requirements for the performance of excavation work, as well as expand the tool base for searching for unauthorized tie-ins in combination with other significant factors that fix potential violations.



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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-121-125

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620.98; 330.322.54
A.A. Kalamkarova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), G.N. Buliskeriya (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.Kh. Ozdoeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow
Alternative energy is it diversification of energy risks or new challenges for the world community

Keywords: alternative energy, renewable energy sources, capital costs, production cost, energy return on investment (EROI)

Escalation of military-political conflicts, tougher with sanctions, and restrictions on the supply of Russian energy carriers, arise more and more questions on the competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The article considers the current stage of world energy sector transformation in terms of the alternative energy sources development and highlights the factors contributing to the increase in the share of renewable energy sources in the structure of the global energy balance. Economic and technological indicators of alternative energy in comparison with traditional energy sources are studies; and the most competitive alternative sources are identified. The authors analyzed a number of economic and technological indicators, including specific capital investments per 1 kW of input power; installed capacity utilization factor; the ratio of received to expended energy; the cost of energy production, taking into account the full life cycle of the equipment. An analysis of the dynamics of indicators makes it possible to identify the main trends and structural shifts, study changes over time, and assess the prospects for the technologies development. Based on a retrospective analysis of global weighted averages, a forecast of capital and production costs is given using the example of solar energy facilities, and an assumption is made about further cost optimization in the field of green energy production. The authors assessed alternative energy marginality in the context of countries, identified the most cost-effective types of energy in the regional context. Some of alternative energy advantages are consider in terms of the absence of the cost of raw materials in the structure of production costs (with the exception of nuclear and bioenergy). Problems and outlines development prospects are discussed. The complex effect in the implementation of alternative energy projects is assessed.



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10. Akhmetshina G.R., Ozdoeva A.Kh., Solar power plants: operation at the sites of the oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2021, no. 9.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-126-131

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V.A. Kolmogorova (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), L.A. Smetanina (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.A. Bulatov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.V. Yakovlev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Applying a comprehensive approach to selection of the most effective option for reducing the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions

Keywords: flue gases, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), technical and economic model, emission rate, capital investments

The authors describe a comprehensive approach that allows to select the most effective option for reducing the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions at the conceptual stage of work. This option should ensure the achievement of target indicators of the project carbon intensity. Decisions on surface field infrastructure play a key role in this issue, because they have a direct impact on both the amount of greenhouse gases generated and the composition and cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) facilities. The developed approach is unique and has no analogues in Russian Federation. Using the HIS QUE$TOR software, widely used to assess the economic efficiency of decarbonization projects in oil companies, a technical and economic model of CCS infrastructure was developed. The results of studies of sensitivity of capital investments in CCS facilities to changes in such technological parameters as the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gases, the degree of carbon dioxide recovery, the type of absorber, the degree of drying of carbon dioxide before transport to the subsurface gas reservoir are presented. The impact of flue gas consumption on capital investment in CCS infrastructure was also assessed. The main algorithms were described and the requirements for the functional content of the tool for express assessment and the choice of a method for utilizing carbon dioxide for industrial facilities of oil companies were reflected. The developed approach to choosing a carbon dioxide utilization option makes it possible to take into account the influence of each factor in a comprehensive manner and choose the arrangement option that is characterized by the lowest costs in order to increase the company profit.



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2. Global status of CCS 2020, Global CCS Institute, 2020, 44 p.

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10. Ushakova A.A., Izvlechenie uglekislogo gaza iz dymovykh gazov na predpriyatii AO Altayvagon (Extraction of carbon dioxide from flue gases at Altaivagon JSC), Collected papers Tekhnologii i oborudovanie khimicheskoy, biotekhnologicheskoy i pishchevoy promyshlennosti (Technologies and equipment for the chemical, biotechnological and food industries), Proceedings of XIII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists with International Participation, Biysk, 2020, pp. 4778.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-132-136

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Yu.S. Zakharevich (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), K.I. Erikssen (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Carbon dioxide sequestration technology assessment of efficiency improvement opportunities

Keywords: flue gases, carbon dioxide, carbon capture, amine treatment, monoethanolamine (MEA), Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS), efficiency improvement

The article considers the current problem of production process decarbonization as well as the possibility of reducing costs when implementing the Rosneft Oil Company "low-carbon" development Strategy. It is known that the most capital-intensive component of carbon dioxide sequestration projects Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) is unit for carbon dioxide capture from flue gases (unit price may account for up to 2/3 of the CCUS project cost). The use of the classical technology of amine purification for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gases has a number of negative factors that significantly complicate the process of interaction of amine in the absorber with carbon dioxide, and directly affect the cost of the unit. These factors mainly include high flue gas temperature, low near-atmospheric pressure, and significantly different component composition of the inlet gas flow. In order to analyze to which extent key negative factors affect the process of carbon dioxide extraction from flue gases  authors developed a technological model of amine treatment unit with the help of Aspen Hysys software with an additional Rate-Based Distillation module. According to Aspen consulting support service, this module is the best universal tool for modeling carbon dioxide sequestration processes. The performed model studies allowed to establish that to operate the absorber column at atmospheric pressure with the process temperature no higher than 45C is the most expedient option. At the same time, it is rational to leave the composition of the initial flue gas flow unchanged (if there is no stable additional source of pure carbon dioxide). Determining the optimal parameters for the operation of an amine treatment unit will allow for significant savings in energy resources and contribute to reducing the total cost of unit for carbon dioxide capture from flue gases.



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10. Ushakova A.A., Izvlechenie uglekislogo gaza iz dymovykh gazov na predpriyatii AO Altayvagon (Extraction of carbon dioxide from flue gases at Altaivagon JSC), Collected papers Tekhnologii i oborudovanie khimicheskoy, biotekhnologicheskoy i pishchevoy promyshlennosti (Technologies and equipment for the chemical, biotechnological and food industries), Proceedings of XIII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists with International Participation, Biysk, 2020, pp. 4778.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-137-141

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S.I. Agrafenin (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), V.I. Kremlev (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), E.A. Zadokhin (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), V.A. Kozlov (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara)
Specifics of emergency shutdown system organization for oil and gas production facilities using risk-oriented approach

Keywords: risk analysis, hazard and operability analysis, explosion hazard category, emergency shutdown, safety integrity level, safety loops verification

Current Federal safety code General Explosion Protection Rules for Explosive and Fire Hazardous Chemical, Petrochemical Plants and Oil Refineries differentiates between emergency shut-down (ESD) systems design for oil and gas sector and for chemical, petrochemical plants and refineries. When preparing design documentation for booster pump stations, water pre-separators, oil or gas treatment plants and tank farms, hazard and operability analysis, and safety integrity assessment are performed using semi-quantitative risk analysis. When designing ESD system for oil and gas production facilities safety loops are verified, and requirements for system components are specified. For verification of safety loops, Giprovostokneft JSC provides simulation and calculation of instrumental protection loop reliability using Arbitr program for structural and logical modeling. To select optimal ESD system for hazardous industrial facility, and to provide the required reliability, several safety loop options shall be designed that will use different Manufacturers equipment (e.g. gauges, programmed logic controllers having documented reliability indicators). Application of risk analysis methods can validate sufficiency of instrumental protection loops for prompt detection, warning and prevention of hazardous events, and reduce CAPEX, if Russian equivalents of ESD equipment are used in the framework of import substantiation.



1. Russian Federal Law No.116-FZ of 21.07.1997, On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities,

URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_15234/

2. Russian Federal Law No. 123-FZ of 22 July 2008, "Technical regulations on fire safety requirements",

URL: http://www.eurotest.ru/upload/iblock/560/5608e2c68ee8f7dd4a99dbf99d8030a0.pdf

3  Russian Federal Law No. 384-FZ Technical regulations on the safety of buildings and facilities of December 30th, 2009, URL: http://cis-legislation.com/document.fwx?rgn=30054

4. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety "General rules of explosion safety for explosive chemical, petrochemical and oil refining industries" approved by order of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision No. 533 dated December 15, 2020.

5. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety "Safety rules in the oil and gas industry" approved by order of the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service No. 534 dated December 15, 2020.

6. Certificate No. 2003611101 on registration of the computer program PC Arbitr

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-142-144

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